Student Study Site for Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 7th Edition
A Multicultural Perspective
Allen E. Ivey, Michael J. D’Andrea, and Mary Bradford Ivey
Ivey, D'Andrea, and Ivey - Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 7th Edition

Journal Articles

Chapter 1: Past Influences, Present Trends, and
Future Challenges in Counseling and Psychotherapy

Multicultural Competence, Social Justice, and Counseling psychology: Expanding Our Roles Elizabeth M. Vera and Suzette L. Speight

Societal changes, as well as continued social inequities, present important opportunities for counselors and psychotherapists to reexamine, reflect, and revise, as necessary, their roles and related competencies. This
article asserts that multiculturalism must include a core commitment to social justice and identifies several social justice-based models which reflect this commitment,
move beyond traditional individual-based interventions,
and have the goal of societal transformation.

  1. What is your definition of “social justice” and its relationship to the practice of counseling and therapy? How similar or dissimilar is your definition, with that of the authors?
  2. In what ways do your background (race, ethnicity and other cultural group memberships), world view, values, and social status impact how you define social justice and the degree to which you feel that it should (or shouldn’t) occupy a critical role in the practice of counseling and therapy?
  3. In their article, the authors cite three social justice dimensions identified by Buckley (1998):
    1. Affective
    2. Intellectual
    3. Pragmatic/volitional
    Assess yourself on each of the above dimensions. How prepared and/or comfortable are you to take on the role of a systems-focused change agent? What would you need to do to increase your levels of competence and confidence in each of the 3 areas? Explain.

Culture and Empirically Supported Treatments: On the Road to a Collision? Martin La Roche and Michael S. Christopher

Emphasis on the identification and utilization of evidence-based clinical interventions continues to gain momentum in the U.S. There is also growing recognition of the importance of using therapeutic interventions which are culturally appropriate for the country’s increasingly diverse citizenry. While both paradigms address legitimate societal needs and concerns, in some respects they have become diametrically opposed to each other. This article provides a foundation to better understand Empirically Supported Treatments (EST) and Culturally Sensitive Therapies (CST) – their respective foci, historical contexts, strengths, limitations, and challenges, and highlights the need for a more collaborative relationship between both.

  1. What would proponents of EST identify as its greatest strengths? What would its critics identify as its greatest limitations when used with culturally diverse populations? Be specific.
  2. Conversely, what would advocates of CST offer as its greatest strengths? What would evidence-based proponents identify as CST’s greatest limitations? Again, be specific.
  3. The authors believe that a “collision” between EST and CST is not inevitable. In what ways are EST and CST compatible? What common goals do they share?
  4. As you develop your own counseling style and professional worldview, which is likely to figure most prominently – EST or CST? Explain.

Chapter 2: Neuroscience: The Newest Force in Counseling
and Psychotherapy

Neuroscience Applications in Marital and Family Therapy
A. Eugene Tootle

The emergence of neuroscience has import for the counseling and therapy of individuals, couples, and families. This article presents an overview of neuroscience research findings that pertain to emotions, cognitive ability, and behavior and discusses their implications for the practice of marital and family therapy.

  1. Identify and discuss the role(s) of the primary areas of the brain identified in the article, which are connected with our emotions, ability to reason, and memory.
  2. The article describes neuroscience as having a commonality with family therapy as both focus on systems. In what ways can the neurochemistry of individual family members impact the larger family system? In what ways can families impact the neurochemistry of individual family members?
  3. Identify and discuss the neurological basis for the importance of emotions for human survival, cognitions, and behavior
  4. The article cites Goleman’s (1995) contention that our behavior and the vast majority of our success in life are determined by our emotional intelligence. How do you define emotional intelligence? What is the difference between an individual’s intellectual quotient/ability (IQ) and his/her emotional intelligence (EQ)?
  5. In the article, the author uses the work of Ayres, Jensen, and other researchers to demonstrate that childhood involvement in certain types of physical, rhythm-based, and musical activities set the foundation for later adjustment in the areas of academic performance, emotional status, communication skills, and/or physical well being. How might this knowledge impact your professional practice?

The Neuroscience of Stigma and Stereotype Threat
Belle Dirks, Michael Inzlicht, and Sonia Kang

Although most people would agree that being on the receiving end of a stereotype or other forms of stigmatization is an unpleasant experience, neuroscience is helping us to understand that stigmatization can also negatively impact our neural processes. This article discusses the ways in which social and cognitive neuroscience have helped us to better understand brain-based responses to being targeted by and attempting to cope with stigmatization.

  1. Define social identity threat, stereotype threat, and stereotype threat spillover and discuss the advantages and caveats in using neuroscience to further our understanding of the above.
  2. Describe the specific brain-based processes by which the experience of stereotype threat can negatively impact an individual’s optimal cognitive/academic functioning.
  3. Identify a specific time when you experienced stereotype threat or another form of social identity threat. Describe your physiological stress, performance monitoring, and affect regulation responses in the situation that you have identified, and the way(s) that you coped with it.
  4. Think about your college/university. Identify environmental cues that might unintentionally contribute to social identity threat for one or more student groups.
  5. What could the college/university do to address these cues and make the overall environment more “identity-safe” for all? What could you, as an individual, specifically do in this regard?

Chapter 3: The Multidimensional Nature of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy

Positioning Classism Within Counseling Psychology’s Social justice Agenda  Laura Smith

The text’s multidimensional RESPECTFUL model includes a focus on an individual’s economic class background. This article highlights the importance of class as a social construct, explores classism and its sustaining factors and impact, and discusses their implications for the practice of counseling and therapy.

  1. How do you define social class? How does it compare with that of the author?
  2. Discuss the ways in which viewing social class as synonymous with SES (socioeconomic status) is problematic from a social justice perspective.
  3. Discuss one way that neuroscience has furthered our understanding of negative societal attitudes toward people who live in poverty. Be specific.
  4. Identify the 5 class and classism-related challenges raised by the author that counseling psychologists need to address. Which would be easiest for you to address? Which would be most difficult? Explain.

Racist Incident-Based Trauma
Thelma Bryant-Davis and Carlota Ocampo

Racism and other forms of oppression continue to be part of the experience of many people from disenfranchised populations in the United States.This article compares and contrasts traumas experienced as the result of racism with those caused by sexual assault and domestic violence.

  1. Identify and discuss the 3 ways that racism can negatively impact the mental health of those who are targeted.
  2. Identify specific factors that may help to psychologically “protect” a person from the toxic effects of racism. How might this information inform your professional practice?
  3. Identify and discuss the 5 barriers cited in the article that may interfere with the counseling profession’s recognition of the existence of racism-based trauma.
  4. Discuss the advantages and limitations related to viewing racist-based traumatic incidents in similar ways as traumas resulting from sexual assault and domestic violence.
  5. When hearing reports of racism or other forms of oppression and the extent of their impact, how easy or difficult is it for you to accept their validity? If such reports are difficult for you to believe, what gets in the way? How may this impact your practice of counseling and therapy with someone from a disenfranchised group?

Chapter 4. Using Narrative and Microskills in Counseling
and Therapy: Foundations of the Intentional Interview

Michael White and the Narrative Perspective in Therapy
Donald L. Bubenzer, John D. West, and Shelly R. Boughner

It is fitting that a more in-depth exploration of Narrative Therapy would include an interview with the person who developed this approach – Michael White. Although the interview was published more than 10 years ago, it provides a good foundation to better understand the origins and components of Narrative Therapy.

  1. Discuss what Michael White means by culture as story? How might this show itself in counseling and therapy?
  2. Discuss how making representalist assumptions of Narrative Therapy are problematic.
  3. What makes internalizing conversations a challenge to the deconstruction/ restorying process? How can counselors assist clients to successfully address such conversations?
  4. Discuss what is meant by unique outcomes and their role in the facilitation of restorying.
  5. Discuss what is meant by the concepts – landscape of action and landscape of consciousness. In your discussion, include their interrelated role in the reauthoring/deconstruction process.

A Practical Skills Model for Effectively Engaging Clients in Multicultural Settings   Anthony J. Alberta and Anita H. Wood

Effective relationship building is critical in counseling and therapy for the creation of trust and for therapy to be maximally effective. The Practical Skills Model of Multicultural Engagement, as presented in this article, furthers our understanding of the first stage of the text’s five-stage interview model.

  1. Compare and contrast the Practical Skills Model relationship building process with Stage 1 of the text’s interview framework.
  2. Define diunital reasoning. Discuss its importance when counseling diverse populations and its limitations. How easy or difficult do you feel it would be for you to acquire this skill?
  3. What do you anticipate would be your biggest internal challenge(s)? What could you do to increase your competence and confidence in demonstrating this relationship-building skill?
  4. Identify and discuss the Model’s 5 core skills. In your discussion, include an assessment of the specific advantages and limitations of conceptualizing each skill area in this way.

Chapter 5. The Psychodynamic Tradition: Theoretical Constructs and Practical Applications

Contemporary Attachment Theory: An Introduction with Implications for Counseling Psychology
Frederick G. Lopez

Attachment Theory holds promise not only for understanding early development, but for providing greater insight about adolescent and adult cognitive, affective, and interpersonal adjustment as well. This article examines contemporary Attachment Theory and presents its critical components, its utility in understanding adolescent and adult adjustment patterns, and its implications for counseling and therapy.

  1. Describe Ainsworth’s Strange Situation and discuss its overall importance in furthering our understanding of Attachment Theory. In your discussion, include its implications regarding the child’s developing sense of self and the world, emotional development and coping ability, the impact of nature vs. nurture, and the theory’s robustness when applied to infants from diverse cultures.
  2. Identify and discuss areas of adult adjustment which are hypothesized to be impacted by adult attachment patterns. In your discussion, also identify the mechanisms by which childhood and adult attachment patterns may ultimately impact adult adjustment.
  3. What is the Continuity Hypothesis? Discuss the limitations of studies exploring this hypothesis.
  4. Discuss how preliminary research findings on earned secure adults hold promise for the assessment and counseling of adults who may have experienced insecure childhood attachments.

Historical Trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska Communities: A Multilevel Framework for Exploring Impacts on Individuals, Families, and Communities
Teresa Evans-Campbell

The text defines soul wound as “…the unconscious psychic conflicts and pain” related to historical trauma experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. This article explores the concept of historically-based trauma and its individual and collective impact, with primary focus on AIAN individuals, families, and communities.

  1. Define and discuss the concept of historical trauma. In your discussion, also address the transmission process, and specific ways in which it can impact individuals, families, and communities.
  2. Although the article’s primary focus is on the AIAN population, it also explores the impact of historical trauma on Japanese-Americans and members of the Jewish community. Identify one additional population group in the United States for which the concept of historical trauma may be appropriately applied. Provide examples at the individual, family, and community levels, which would support the applicability of the historical trauma concept to the group that you have identified.
  3. Define historical trauma response. How might it show itself and impact the counseling process? What specific assessment and counseling challenges does it present to psychodynamic counselors and therapists? What can counselors and therapists do to effectively address such challenges and facilitate client resilience?

Chapter 6. Adlerian and Jungian Counseling and Therapy

Infusing Adlerian Theory into an Introductory Marriage and Family Course
Rebecca M. LaFountain and Beverly L. Mustaine

The text defines soul wound as “… the unconscious psychic conflicts and pain” related to historical trauma experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) communities.This article explores the concept of historically-based trauma and its individual and collective impact, with primary focus on AIAN individuals, families, and communities.

  1. Summarize the information provided by the authors to support their claims about Alfred Adler’s “… pioneering role in the systems approach”.
  2. Discuss the key assumptions, goals, and techniques of open forum family counseling. In what ways are they similar with other systems-based marital and family approaches and in what ways are they unique?
  3. How are gender and other cultural factors understood and incorporated into the theory and application of Individual Psychology?
  4. What is the definition and importance of lifestyle in Adlerian marital and family work? How is lifestyle assessed and addressed?
  5. Define and discuss the Adlerian techniques of guessing and spitting in the client’s soup and their role in open forum marital and family work.

The Relevance of Jungian Psychology for Cultural Psychiatry
Henry Abramovitch and Laurence J. Kirmayer

In this article, the authors present an overview of the primary components of Jungian Psychology. In their discussion, they identify the major contributions of this approach to the fields of mental health and alcohol abuse, with emphasis on Jung’s particular relevance for cultural psychiatry.

  1. Identify and briefly discuss the elements of Jungian Psychology that are particularly compatible with the practice of cultural psychiatry and increase the likelihood that counseling and therapy will be experienced as culturally aligned by clients from diverse cultural backgrounds.
  2. Discuss the concept of the wounded healer and its significance for the training of mental health professionals.
  3. Discuss Jung’s reference to spirituality’s transcendent role and an individual’s spiritual quest. What are the advantages and challenges to understanding a client’s religious and spiritual experiences in this way?

Chapter 7. Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling and Therapy

Behavior Therapy Empowers Persons with Severe Mental Illness Patrick W. Corrigan

Behavior Therapy has been effectively used to address a wide variety of client concerns experienced by a diverse range of population groups. This article counters assertions that Behavior Therapy may reduce the agency of those with a diagnosis of severe mental illness and concerns that it may unintentionally increase stigmatization of members of this group. The author additionally asserts that Behavior Therapy is empowering for clients, particularly in the area of being able to make decisions in an independent way.

  1. Compare and contrast the Disease and Discrimination Models as presented in the article. In your discussion address the models’ similarities and differences, their respective explanations for the loss of social opportunity for those with severe mental illness, the society vs. client emphasis, and associated practice implications.
  2. Empowerment can be defined in multiple ways. Summarize the article’s definition of empowerment and examine its claim that the use of Behavior Therapy with clients who have a diagnosis of severe mental illness, by its very nature, is empowering.
  3. The article cautions practitioners about the potential misuse of Behavior Therapy with clients who have been diagnosed with a severe mental illness and highlights the importance of increasing client involvement in and satisfaction with treatment. Discuss how such misuse might occur and identify 3 specific ways that counselors and therapists can facilitate client-counselor collaboration and treatment satisfaction, and otherwise decrease the likelihood that Behavior Therapy may become disempowering.
  4. Although the article recognizes the role of societal and practitioner-based stereotypes, prejudice, and stigma toward members of this population group, it’s focus is on the individual client. From a social justice and prevention perspective, what can practitioners and training programs do to better address these attitudinal barriers to client empowerment and functioning?

Mindfulness with Children and Adolescents: Effective Clinical Application Miles Thompson and Jeremy Gauntlett-Gilbert

The practice of mindfulness is a behavioral intervention that has more recently received increased empirical support and popularity when used with adults. However, its use with children and adolescents has been minimal and empirically rigorous studies of mindfulness approaches with this population have been limited. This article examines and provides recommendations for the clinical application of mindfulness interventions with children and adolescents.

  1. Define and discuss the differences between mindlessness and mindfulness – their presumed and/or demonstrated impact on an individual’s emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being. In your discussion, also compare and contrast mindfulness practice with that of Relaxation Training, Transcendental Meditation, and Cognitive Therapy.
  2. What are the challenges in directly applying empirical findings related to the use of mindfulness approaches with adults to the application of this intervention with children and adolescents? What modifications and unique applications of this approach when used with younger populations, have been identified by the authors?
  3. The article recommends the incorporation of metaphors/analogies – such as bubbles, puppy training, and studying an amoeba – into explanations and the practice of mindfulness techniques with children and adolescents. Describe a metaphor/analogy that would be personally salient for you in understanding the practice of mindfulness.

Chapter 8. Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy and Reality Therapy

Rational Emotive Therapy with Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis Jorge E. Gonzalez, J. Ron Nelson, Terry B. Gutkin, Anita Saunders, Ann Galloway, and Craig S. Shwery

The effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with adults has been empirically supported in qualitative and quantitative studies. Although this approach has been used with children and adolescents, empirical analyses of its efficacy with a younger population has been limited. This article reports the findings of their meta-analysis of 19 quantitative school-based studies which examined treatment outcomes related to the use of REBT with children and adolescents.

  1. The authors caution against applying empirical findings for the use of REBT with adults to the use of this approach with children and adolescents. What rationale do they provide for this caveat?
  2. Briefly summarize the authors’ findings and discuss how they inform us about the use of REBT with children and adolescents. What cautions should be exercised in generalizing their results? In what ways were the current study’s actual findings similar to adult focused meta-analyses of REBT studies and in what ways were they different? How did the authors explain the differences in findings?
  3. Imagine that you are a consultant to a school district which is interested in using REBT to address a number of issues in their schools. Based on the current study’s findings, how would you proceed? Which of the study’s findings would you find most useful and relevant in this regard?

Choice Theory: An Interview with Dr. William Glasser  Jill D. Onedera and Bill Greenwalt

This article presents an interview about Choice Theory with Dr. William Glasser - the architect of Reality Therapy and Choice Theory.

  1. Discuss Dr. Glasser’s statement that “… mental health equals happiness equals choice theory”. In your discussion, also address Choice Theory’s core components, underlying assumptions, the 7 deadly and 7 caring habits, and counselor qualifications
  2. From Dr. Glasser’s perspective, how may the use of the DSM and psychotropic medication to diagnose and treat clients, respectively, harm rather than help clients
  3. Discuss the degree to which Choice Theory “fits” with your personal and professional worldview and values, and for the population(s) and setting(s) in which you are preparing to work as a counselor/therapist. Explain.

Chapter 9. The Existential-Humanistic Tradition

Rogers’s Person-Centered Approach: Consideration for Use in Multicultural Counseling  Carol MacDougall

This article examines Rogers’ Person-Centered approach through a multicultural lens. In this regard, the author evaluates this approach against D. W. Sue and D. Sue’s identified multicultural competencies, highlighting Rogers’ contributions to multicultural counseling and identifying areas in which the author thinks that Rogers’ model falls short. Specific recommendations for revision are also made.

  1. The author states that “Counselor neutrality is a myth.” What is the basis for her assertion? Do you think that it is ever possible for counselors and therapists to become totally neutral and non-judgmental? Explain.
  2. Identify and discuss the strengths and relevance of Rogers’ model in understanding and counseling diverse populations.
  3. The author refers to the diversity paradox. In what way(s) is Rogers’ recognition of the importance of culture, paradoxical in nature?
  4. Identify and discuss the article’s other key concerns and criticisms of Rogers’ model, from the standpoint of its use with clients from a diverse range of cultural groups.
  5. Briefly summarize the article’s recommendations to transform Rogers’ Person-Centered approach into one which is more culture-centered?

Working With the Elderly: An Existential — Humanistic Approach  Rochelle Suri

This article examines the relevance of Existential–Humanistic-related themes of presence, spirituality, and meaning when working with older adults. Changing demographics and recommendations for counseling and training are also offered.

  1. Define presence, spirituality, and meaning and discuss the relationship of each to key existential-humanistic assumptions and values.
  2. Discuss the particular relevance of each of the above themes in facilitating the developmental journey and well-being of older adults. In your discussion, also address how they each may be used in counseling a diverse range of older adults.
  3. The author cites provider preferences toward psychopharmacological interventions over counseling and/or the assumed lack of interest in counseling and therapy on the part of older adults, as possible reasons why most training programs have little or no focus on counseling members of this population. What is your sense about the lack of focus in training programs on this rapidly growing and often invisible population group? Do you plan to provide counseling and therapy to older adults? What factors, concerns, and/or experiences contributed to your arriving at this decision?

Chapter 10. Logotherapy and Gestalt Counseling

The Experience of Meaning in Suffering among Holocaust Survivors  Teria Shantall

Crimes against humanity such as the Holocaust and enslavement, as well as less extreme traumas and ongoing “microaggressions”, can crush the spirits of those who are targeted and chip away at their humanity. This article summarizes narratives obtained from Holocaust survivors and distills their stories into shared themes; Frankl’s writings and experiences are interwoven throughout the article.

  1. Discuss the ways in which oppression, disenfranchisement, and marginalization assault the human spirit.
  2. The article cites Frankl’s references to the “… defiant power of the human spirit” and that “… suffering somehow ceases to be suffering, the moment it takes on meaning”. What may interfere with a client’s willingness to revise their current way of constructing the world?
  3. How do the survivors’ stories in the article inform our ability to assist clients to “rise above” oppressive situations and conditions and choose to live in a more meaningful and purposeful way? Be specific.
  4. The author describes her emotional journey related to being impacted by the survivors’ stories of pain, suffering, and “spiritual (victory)”. What challenges might you internally experience as you hear clients’ painful narratives and help them to find meaning? What would help you to effectively address your own internal challenges?

Hats Off to Problem-Solving with Couples  Chi-Sing Li, Yu-Fen Lin, Judy Nelson, and Daniel Eckstein

The Gestalt Empty Chair technique has been incorporated into multiple creative counseling techniques which provide a structured vehicle for increased client self-reflection, emotional competence, possibility-generation, problem-solving, and/or perspective-taking. This article presents deBono’s Six Thinking Hats approach and its usefulness in couple counseling. Related research, as well as strengths and limitations of this technique are also presented.

  1. Describe the Six Thinking Hats technique, and the types of situations and couples’ issues for which it may be especially well-suited.
  2. Compare and contrast the goals, core assumptions, focus, microskills, and counselor role of the Six Thinking Hats technique with those of the Empty Chair technique in specific, and with Gestalt Therapy in general.
  3. Discuss other ways that the Six Thinking Hats might be effectively used when counseling individuals, couples, and/or families.

Chapter 11. Feminist Counseling and Therapy

Does “Feminist” Plus “Therapist” Equal “Feminist Therapist”?: An Empirical Investigation of the Link Between Self-Labeling and Behaviors Bonnie Moradi, Ann R. Fischer, Melanie S. Hill, LaRae M. Jome and Sasha A. Blum

This article examines the impact of a counselor or therapist’s self-identification as a feminist and/or feminist therapist on therapy behavior with female and male clients.

  1. How does this study further our understanding of what is feminist therapy?
  2. In what way(s) were the therapy behaviors of self-identified feminist therapists similar when they were working with female as opposed to male clients? In what way(s) did they differ? How would you explain these findings?
  3. Identify and discuss the study’s finding that the authors identify as indicative of positive changes in the practice of counseling and therapy. Do you agree with their conclusion?
  4. From your perspective, what are some of the benefits that male clients can derive from a feminist therapy approach?
  5. Based on the study’s findings, does a counselor or therapist need to be a woman to effectively provide feminist therapy? Explain.

The Egalitarian Relationship in Feminist Therapy  Jill Rader and Lucia Albino Gilbert

Practitioners, theorists, and researchers have identified as many as 16 different themes to describe the key components of feminist therapy. This article reports the findings of the authors’ research on a key factor in the practice and understanding of feminist therapy - the nature of the counselor-client relationship. The study’s primary focus is on collaboration and the sharing of power, and the impact of a feminist therapist self-identification on utilizing empowerment-related therapy behaviors with female clients.

  1. Based on the cited literature and the current study’s findings, provide an operational definition of what would constitute an egalitarian therapeutic relationship from a feminist therapy perspective?
  2. Compare and contrast the study’s findings for those therapists who identified as feminist therapists and those who did not. In what way were they similar and on which dimensions were they found to be different?
  3. One of the scales that was utilized by the researchers involved a femscore. What is a femscore and with what scale is it associated? Additionally discuss how the study’s femscore findings help us to better understand the practice of feminist therapy?
  4. The open-ended responses from therapists who chose not to identify as feminist highlight the loaded nature of this word. What does the word feminist mean to you? Would you identify yourself as a feminist? … as a feminist therapist? Why or why not? Why do you think that the word feminist has become a loaded politicized social construct? What does this reflect about our larger society and the way in which women may be viewed?

Chapter 12. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy

Multidimensional Facets of Cultural Competence
Derald Wing Sue

In this article, the author presents a comprehensive model— the MDCC (Multiple Dimensions of Cultural Competence Model) – for understanding multicultural competence.

  1. Identify and discuss the primary dimensions of this model. In your discussion, include the ways in which the MDCC furthers our understanding of multicultural competence and provides us with a functional model for assessment and intervention.
  2. Discuss the dilemma which is identified in the article regarding whether to adopt a broad definition of culture or to embrace a definition which maintains a primary focus on race.
  3. The author states that “One might even suggest that people are taught from the moment of birth to be culturally incompetent.” Discuss the author’s rationale for making this statement. If related attitudes and behaviors are learned, what are the implications for the practice of counseling and therapy?
  4. To what degree is the MDCC model compatible with your developing approach to counseling and therapy and professional worldview? Explain.

Culturally Competent Feminist Social Work: Listening to Diverse People Sabriana Gentlewarrior, Anna Martin-Jearld, Alyson Skok and Katelyn Sweetser

This study examines discrimination-related experiences described by respondents from a range of disenfranchised groups; the study also addresses an often-overlooked area – the way in which people from disenfranchised groups conceptualize practitioner cultural competence. Although this article examines this question from a social work and secondarily feminist perspective, its findings are of import for all practitioners regardless of professional affiliation.

  1. One of the study’s findings was that 92% of their respondents reported having been the target of bias and discrimination in their lifetime; for many respondents, this occurred in multiple areas of their lives. How should this finding inform our practice of counseling and therapy?
  2. Several of the study’s respondents expressed concern about the paucity and/or accuracy of written information that is available about people from marginalized groups. What are your thoughts about what contributes to this identified problem? What can practitioners do to make sure that they are viewing and understanding their clients from disenfranchised groups in accurate ways?
  3. One of the authors’ recommendations was to have current social work models of cultural competence routinely reviewed by members of marginalized groups to increase the models’ accuracy and goodness-of-fit for the populations for which they were developed. What are other things that practitioners can do to increase the validity of embraced theories, interventions, and models?
  4. Respondent recommendations for practitioners to engage in culturally competent practice included:
    1. establish collaborative relationships with clients in which clients are truly listened to and heard
    2. be open to other perspectives and awareness of our own baggage
    3. acquire direct knowledge of and experience with a diverse range of people and the communities from which they come
    4. obtain training on diversity-related knowledge and skills
    5. be empathic and compassionate
    6. recognize intra-group heterogeneity
    7. utilize competent assessment practices
    Using a 5 point scale, with 1=Not yet competent and 5=Extremely Competent, how would you assess yourself on each of the above 7 areas? Pick the area with your lowest score. What can you do to increase your competence in this area by one notch?

Chapter 13. Positive Psychology/Wellness Counseling and Brief/Solution-Focused Therapy

The Military Genogram: A Solution-Focused Approach for Resiliency Building in Service Members and their Families
Eugenia L. Weiss, Jose E. Coll, Jennifer Gerbauer, Kate Smiley and Ed Carillo

Solution-focused approaches and genogram work have become increasingly popular to address a variety of issues and for use with a diverse range of populations. This article focuses on the military-specific genogram, which incorporates components of solution-focused approaches, genogram construction, and multicultural theory, and highlights its usefulness to understand, work with, and increase the resiliency of military personnel and their families.

  1. The article begins with the premise that the military is a distinct culture to which the service member, and secondarily - their family, belong. Describe the values, norms, behaviors, etc. of this unique culture. Identify the aspects of this culture that may increase the resiliency and coping ability of service personnel and their families and those aspects which may present challenges when counseling members of this population.
  2. Discuss the concept of resiliency and the ways in which a solution-focused approach can facilitate resiliency in those under the military umbrella.
  3. Discuss the advantages of utilizing a military genogram with a solution-focused approach when counseling military personnel and their families. In what ways has the basic genogram been modified to address the unique military culture?

Coping with Caregiving Stress: A Wellness-Oriented, Strengths-Based Approach for Family Counselors
Jane E. Myers

As baby-boomers age and the number of older adults rapidly increase, the population of caregivers is also expected to expand. This article reviews research findings on the physical, emotional, and financial impact of caregiving on caregivers and encourages practitioners to utilize wellness models to identify and build on strengths, reduce provider stress, increase empowerment and resilience, and promote the well-being of the caregiver and the family. The article presents a case study in which the author used the Wheel of Wellness model and its related Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle with an African-American family caregiver.

  1. How has research in this area increased our understanding about the impact of caregiving on caregivers and their families?
  2. What intervening factors may lessen the negative impact of caregiving stress?
  3. Describe the 4-stage approach recommended by Myers and associates regarding counseling-related use of the Wheel of Wellness.
  4. What specific recommendations would you have for practitioners working with diverse caregiver populations to insure that the assessment and design/implementation stages of this wellness model are culturally compatible with the caregiver and his/her family?

Chapter 14. Developmental Counseling and Therapy: Integrative Theory and Practice

Prevention and Counseling Psychology: Revitalizing Commitments for the 21st Century   John L. Romano and
Sally M. Hage

This article presents a strong argument for Counseling Psychology’s knowledge base and practice to reflect a greater focus on prevention to better address the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. In this regard, the authors present a rationale for this argument, historical perspective, and recommendations for practice and training.

  1. In what way(s) is a prevention-based agenda inextricably tied to facilitating the development and well-being of individuals, families, and communities?
  2. Discuss the major barriers, which according to the authors, have interfered with the adoption of a more vigorous prevention agenda by the Counseling profession.
  3. Discuss the definition of prevention which is offered by the authors. In your discussion, identify and discuss the 5 dimensions which have been incorporated into their definition. How does their definition compare with other prevailing definitions? What are the advantages and/or limitations of their definition?
  4. Discuss the authors’ 4 articulated prevention-related goals for Counseling Psychology. Would you add any additional goals? Provide your rationale.
  5. Based on the article, what specific attitudes, knowledge, and skills will counselors need to acquire in order to competently carry out the prevention agenda which has been articulated by the authors? To what degree do you anticipate that you will possess these identified competencies at the conclusion of your training experience?

Conceptualizing Disability: Developing a Framework for Political Disability Identity   Michelle Putnam

The impact of systemic issues on the identity development of people from disenfranchised groups has been the focus of several qualitative and quantitative studies. This article examines disability identity development and the related issues of empowerment, self-advocacy, and political activism.

  1. The article embraces the conceptualization of disability as a social construct.  As part of the author’s summarization of Hahn’s (1994) concept of disability, she states that “ … disability is noted to be the result of an inappropriate fit between the person and the environment. If a particular environment offered all of the resources a particular individual required to perform a task or activity, no disability would exist.” What is your definition of disability and how does it compare with the author’s? Summarize findings presented in the article which support consideration of the disability experience as a social construct.
  2. Compare and contrast the medical model of disability with social disability models. In your comparison, also discuss their respective implications for disability identity development, assessment and intervention, and political action.
  3. What is the argument that the author makes for assigning “minority group status” to people with a disability? In what ways is this group similar to disenfranchised groups which are defined by race, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation and in what way(s) is this group different?
  4. The article delineates 6 domains which shape political disability identity. Identify and discuss each of the domains and discuss specific ways that each domain can be impacted by external factors.
  5. In what specific ways does the information presented in the article inform your understanding of the practice of counseling and therapy with individuals who have a disability?

Chapter 15. Basic Foundations of Family Counseling and Therapy: Theoretical Foundations and Translations to Practice

Using Eco-Mapping to Understand Family Strengths and Resources   Katherine M. McCormick, Sarintha Stricklin, Theresa M. Nowak and Beth Rous

An eco-map is a simple assessment, planning, implementation, service coordination, and evaluation tool that views individuals and the households of which they are a member, in-relation. Although the focus of this article is on the use of eco-maps by early intervention practitioners, eco-maps can be a valuable tool when used in counseling and therapy.

  1. Describe the key assumptions, primary components, and construction process of the eco-map, as presented in the article.
  2. What revisions would you make in the construction of the eco-map as presented in the article and to Table 1 (Potential Supports) to increase their applicability for clients seen in counseling and therapy? Provide your rationale.
  3. Discuss the ways in which counselors and therapists can use eco-maps to enhance their work with individuals, couples, and families. In your discussion, also address specific types of issues and/or clients for whom eco-maps may be particularly useful and why.
  4. As eco-maps include an examination of the flow of energy and support between individuals and significant people/systems in their lives, it can be a useful self-care tool for counselors and therapists, as well. Construct and review your own eco-map. What do the results of your eco-map suggest about ways to enhance your overall level of wellness and reduce the chance of burnout?

The Genogram: From Diagnostics to Mutual Collaboration  Adriana Balaguer, Dunn Mary and Michael Levitt

Genograms have been increasingly used with individuals, couples, and families. This article examines recent trends toward specialization and standardization in the construction of genograms and urges that genograms remain primarily process-focused.

  1. The authors cite Bowen’s work in support of their recommendation that the use of genograms in counseling and therapy remain process-focused. Discuss the primary tenets and goals of Bowenian family therapy and how they support the authors’ recommendation.
  2. The article differentiates between using genograms primarily as a diagnostic technique, as opposed to using it as a central component of an ongoing collaborative therapeutic process. Discuss the differences between these two uses of genograms and whether you think that they are mutually exclusive.
  3. According the article, how should the genogram construction process proceed to strengthen the therapeutic alliance and maximally facilitate client “voice”, empowerment, problem-solving ability, and restorying? Provide your rationale.
  4. After the genogram has been constructed collaboratively with the client, how can it be effectively used at subsequent points in the counseling process?

Chapter 16. Identifying Your Own Integrated Approach
to Counseling and Therapy

Basic Principles of Intervention   Mark S. Carich and
Karen Spilman

This article begins with the recognition that many clinicians utilize an eclectic approach to counseling and therapy. In their review of multiple psychotherapeutic models and theories, the authors were able to identify 12 common factors which guide the selection and implementation of specific interventions. The authors view these principles as critical to effective practice of counseling and therapy.

  1. Identify and briefly discuss each of the 12 identified principles. Are there any additional principles that you think should be added? Explain.
  2. When you assess yourself on each of the 12 principles, which ones do you currently view as your strengths and which ones present the greatest challenges for you? Explain. How would you address these challenges?
  3. Describe your evolving counseling and therapy approach and associated worldview. Which of the article’s 12 principles figure most prominently in your identified approach/worldview? Briefly describe your professional journey thus far in developing your counseling/therapy approach. In your discussion, identify the factors that have had the greatest influence on your evolving approach.

Applying Multitheoretical Psychotherapy Integration to Family Therapy  James M. Devlin and Tracy Calley

This article focuses on the development and utilization of integrated therapeutic approaches in counseling and therapy with individuals, couples, and families. In their overview, the authors present a brief history, contributing factors, and advantages of integrative therapeutic approaches. The article’s primary focus is on a specific integrative therapeutic model – the Multitheoretical Psychotherapy Integration model (MTP) developed by Dr Brooks-Harris, and its use in family therapy.

  1. Identify and describe the five principles of MTP.
  2. To what degree is the MTP model able to address a range of client issues? Explain. Discuss its applicability when used with culturally diverse populations.
  3. What is the relationship between the four forces of counseling and therapy and the MTP model?
  4. What are some of the barriers which have been identified by the authors as currently contributing to the lack of integrative training models?