Student Study Site for Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
An Integrative Approach
Elsie Jones-Smith
Jones-Smith - Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy:An Integrative Approach

Journal Articles

Chapter 1 Theories of Psychotherapy

Theory Development: A Bridge Between Practice and Research  By Stephen Southern and James Devlin

Theory development is important in the application of research to counseling practice. In this article, inductive and deductive means of theory development, as well as personal and professional influences upon theoretical orientation are explored. Theory-building questions are introduced to assist counselors in identifying areas of personal preferences and possible biases.


  1. Describe what a grounded theory refers to. Why is this type of theory able to bridge potential gaps between counseling researchers and practitioners?
  2. According to the authors, counseling practitioners form their practice models and theories through their own life experiences. In what ways can this approach enhance a counseling practitioner’s work? In what ways can this approach limit a counseling practitioner’s work?
  3. The “theory-building questions” contained in table 3, can help students begin to conceptualize how theories can be intentionally or unintentionally selected or followed. Which theory-building questions are the most salient to you and why? What aspects of your own life experience have impacted your counseling theory and the values and beliefs it contains?

On Science-Practice Integration in Everyday Life :
A Plea for Theory
  By Nancy L. Murdock

Applying theory to individual counseling clients and client concerns can seem difficult and abstract. Models of science to practitioner are presented in this article, as a means to understand how counseling theory and counseling practice can reciprocally support and enhance both research and practice.


  1. What is meant by the article’s reference to counselors who think scientifically?
  2. Describe what the author refers to as the orientation based approach to science-practitioner integration. What are the strengths and limitations of this approach?
  3. Based upon the article, what are the ways that the experiences of counseling practice can inform the direction of counseling research? Similarly, what are the ways that counseling research can inform counseling practice?

Chapter 2 Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic Theories

Therapist and Patient Mental Representations: the Early Therapy Relationship in Long-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy   By Cheri Marmarosh, Rachel Whipple,
Melanie Schettler, Sandra Pinhas, Jami Wolf and Sinan Sayit

Several hypotheses regarding attachment needs and early therapy relationship are posited by the authors of this study. The hypotheses regarding early therapy relationship are based in part upon the attachment experiences that occur previously in life with primary caregivers.


  1. Describe what the article refers to as an selfobject-hungry and selfobject-rejecting styles of attachment in the therapy relationship.
  2. The article puts forth hypotheses that counselors may question their value, internalize feelings of helplessness, and experience anger with clients who are introjective (selfobject-rejecting). Do you agree with this assessment? Why or why not?
  3. What type of attachment style would lead a psychodynamic therapist to focus on relational issues and support a need for closeness? What type of attachment style would lead a psychodynamic therapist to focus interpretation within the relationship?

How Can We Know What We Need To Know? Reflections On Clinical Judgment Formation   By Cordelia Schmidt-Hellerau and Fred Busch

Psychodynamic theory provides a level of objectivity from which therapists can view themselves and their interactions with clients, removing narcissistic impressions and judgments. The basis for this distancing can be explored through considering how judgments about therapist-patient interactions are formed. This article examines those judgments, and how they are formed, and encourages reflection for therapists regarding how subjective impressions can be compared and contrasted with objective standards available through psychoanalytic theory.


  1. The article notes that psychoanalysts can differ in how they help a client from other caring people in a client’s life through an investigation of defense mechanisms, anxieties, and unconscious needs. What is your description of how a psychoanalyst differs from other caring people in a client’s life?
  2. Describe what the author refers to as the orientation based approach to science-practitioner integration. What are the strengths and limitations of this approach?
  3. Present two examples from the case of Eleanor where the therapist reacts objectively to what Eleanor is sharing, examining details through psychoanalysis rather than reacting defensively to the statements or judgments that Eleanor shares.

Chapter 3 Adlerian Psychotherapy

The Strength-Based Model for Counseling At-Risk Youths  
By Marty Sapp

The author highlights how Adlerian theory, among other theories, can form a basis of applying a strengths-based perspective on counseling at-risk youths. The definition of at-risk, including academically at-risk, and other forms of the definition of at-risk are identified to further connect theories to counseling practice.


  1. Define phenomenology and explain how it can be described as subjective.
  2. What is the definition of “soft-determinism” put forward in the article, and how does it apply to counseling at-risk youth?
  3. The author cites a 4-phase model of using an Adlerian approach to work with at-risk youth. What, in your opinion, is missing from the phases described in this model?

Deriving a Third Force Approach to Child Development From the Works of Alfred Adler   By Eugene M. DeRobertis

The article examines Adler’s influence upon the field of humanistic psychology. Specific attention is paid to child development, creativity, free will, and attachment. The relevance of Adler’s contributions to current understanding
of human development is described.


  1. What is the role of a child’s creative process in the development of the child, according to the article?
  2. Through statements in the article, evaluate how Adler would interpret a debate regarding whether nature or nurture is more influential in the development of a child.
  3. How does the author describe Adler’s concept of social interest and what are the components of social interest? In your opinion, what does a person’s social interest signify?

Chapter 4 Behavior Therapy

Behavior Therapy Empowers Persons with Severe Mental Illness  By Patrick W. Corrigan

The article asserts that behavioral therapy can increase the independence, capacity to make decisions, and independent living of individuals with severe mental illness. The article attempts to clarify misconceptions and stereotypes regarding the application of behavioral therapy.


  1. What is the definition of “empower” that is being described in this article?
  2. What is meant by a token economy? Can you give an example of a token economy?
  3. What are some of the risks that therapists may need to monitor while implementing behavior therapy techniques with persons with severe mental illness?

Behavioral Approaches to the Problems of Obesity  
By Myles S. Faith, Kevin R. Fontaine, Lawrence J. Cheskin
and David B. Allison

Individual and group interventions aimed at problems associated with obesity are approached from a behavioral perspective. Problems such as weight composition and management, lifestyle factors, a lack of self esteem and assertiveness, and judgment by non-obese individuals are examined. Throughout the article, obesity is referenced as a multifaceted problem.


  1. What are some of the challenges of sustaining behavioral approaches to the problem of obesity?
  2. What type of program would you design to impact the self-attitude and self-esteem of obese people, from a behavioral perspective?
  3. What are some of the ways that behavioral therapy approaches can impact the acceptance of obese people among non-obese people?

Chapter 5 Cognitive Approaches to Psychotherapy

The Clinical Practice of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children and Young People With a Diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome  By Kate Donoghue, Paul Stallard and Joanna Kucia

The article explores the application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to children and young people with Asperger’s Syndrome. The article references an adaptation of Cognitivie Behavioral Therapy (PRECISE) that is implemented to develop and maintain a therapeutic relationship with and make CBT more accessible to children.


  1. Describe in your words, the application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy through the PRECISE model. What aspect(s) of the model seem most challenging to achieve? What aspect(s) of the model seem the easiest to achieve?
  2. What elements may be missing from the PRECISE model, and what would you add to the PRECISE model to improve it?
  3. How would you design a research project to evaluate the application of the PRECISE model of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to young people with Asperger’s Syndrome?

A Case Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy With a Perpetrator of Domestic Abuse  By Michael Townend and Margaret E. Smith

The case highlights a 20-week treatment plan consisting of a cognitive conceptualization. Evaluation of the therapy is by self-report measures of aggression, assertiveness, and dysfunctional attitudes that were administered pre and post therapy. Results are a reduction in aggressive behavior and improved assertiveness, with dysfunctional attitudes changed to a profile of greater psychological strength.


  1. Describe what is referred to in the article as an “interlock”. How does an “interlock” provide a model for understanding the interface of environmental influences, thoughts, and behaviors?
  2. What is the role of conceptualization within Cognitive therapy, and how does conceptualization aid in the development of adaptive coping mechanisms and responses?
  3. Within the case of Michael, what is the role of understanding his personal history and experiences? How does this understanding support the application of cognitive therapies to promote alternative coping mechanisms and responses?

Chapter 6 Reality/Choice Therapy

Choice Theory: An Interview With Dr. William Glasser  By Jill D. Onedera and Bill Greenwalt

The article consists of an interview with Dr. William Glasser where he describes his choice theory and choice theory approach to counseling. Within the article, he shares his perspective on mental health, choice in relationships, and how counselors can implement choice theory with their clients. Examples of approaching presenting counseling concerns are shared, with emphasis placed upon the level of desired control over external events and people impact happiness.


  1. The article asserts that mental health is healthy relationships, and within relationships an individual can control only their own individual behavior. Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? What might be missing from this conceptualization of mental health?
  2. What is the difference, according to the article, between suffering from unhappiness and suffering from mental illness?
  3. What are described by Glasser as the seven deadly habits and the seven caring habits? How do these habits impact counseling? How do these habits impact parenting?

Marriage Failure: A New Look at an Old Problem  By William Glasser and Larry L. Palmatier

The article applies tenets of Glasser’s Reality Therapy to marriage relationships. This application involves exploring basic needs, the concept of a quality world, and responsibility and choice of attitude and behavior within a marriage relationship. Recommendations for a marriage skills program incorporating Reality Therapy are made.


  1. What are the “five basic needs” described in the article?  Can you give an example of how each of these needs manifest within the marriage relationship?
  2. What is the “Old Problem” being described in the article?
  3. Describe the concept of the “quality world” and outline how it impacts an individual’s experience of relationships?

Chapter 7 Existential Theory

On the Road to Being : My Personal Journey into Existential Theory and Practice  By Manijeh Badiee

The article describes how the author has investigated existential themes of meaning, purpose, presence, and self reflection through her own life. Implications for her work with clients and her own emergence and growth as a counselor are explored. Themes of existential clarity and existential obscurity are discussed.


  1. How would you describe the concept of existential clarity? What is meant by existential obscurity?
  2. Please describe acceptance and commitment therapy. How is it similar to existential therapy? How is it different?
  3. Considering the content and example provided by the article, can you outline stages of your own existential journey?

Working With the Elderly: An Existential−Humanistic Approach  By Rochelle Suri

The article frames an existential – humanistic approach to working with the elderly. Descriptions of specific existential themes of presence, meaning, spirituality, anxiety, and fear / loss are explored and described. The article also connects statistics related to the aging of the population (increased numbers of individuals over age 65) with implications for providing counseling services.


  1. How would you, in your own words, describe what is meant by presence, spirituality, and meaning in counseling work?
  2. If you were to design a counseling course, how would you teach existential-humanistic approaches?
  3. Are there any theories or approaches, besides existential-humanism, that you would apply as you counsel and work with the elderly?

Chapter 8 Person-Centered Therapy

Rogers's Person-Centered Approach: Consideration for Use in Multicultural Counseling   By Carol MacDougall

The article explores the application of Rogers’s Person-Centered therapy to counseling in multicultural contexts using D.W. Sue and Sue’s conceptual model of multicultural competencies. These competencies include self-awareness, awareness of client’s culture, and appropriate interventions


  1. What is the role of power, and who holds the power, within person-centered counseling?
  2. What value does Roger’s place upon independence within person-centered counseling, and how could his pose a challenge when striving for multiculturally competent counseling?
  3. In your view, how applicable is person-centered theory to multicultural counseling competencies? What areas of person-centered theory or counseling approaches could be refined to become more aligned with multicultural counseling competencies?

A Person-Centered Approach to the Treatment of Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  By Adam Quinn

The article asserts the important role that genuine congruence plays in the treatment and counseling of combat veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Categories of congruence are described and PTSD is explored, with categories of symptoms of PTSD outlined within the article.


  1. What is the difference between utilitarian congruence and genuine congruence?
  2. The author describes categories of symptoms of PTSD. What are these categories and what are some examples of how these categories manifest themselves?
  3. On page 471, the author outlines stages a veteran experiences that may lead to an experience of PTSD. Examine these stages and identify two stages where a counselor may intervene through person-centered techniques

Chapter 9 Gestalt Therapy

About feelings in action research : An experiment in first-person inquiry   By Hanne Heen

The article explores the implications of the author’s feelings and lived experience in the act of conducting research. A gestalt framework is proposed as one way to integrate personal experience self-reflection and inquiry.


  1. The author describes Gestalt theory as shifting focus from the structure of (what is) to process (what role do I have in creating what is). What is the role of counselor awareness in this shift?
  2. Consider one of your interactions and write about it using one of the perspectives upon first-person inquiry put forth in the article:
  3. What happened in the interaction?
    1. How did the interaction impact you?
    2. How can you use this information to inform the general picture of the other person, and the relationship that exists between the two of you?
  4. What is the role of examining feelings in Gestalt theory application?

Two Approaches to Counseling a Parent Alone: Toward a Gestalt-Adlerian Integration  By James Robert Bitter

The article provides an example of the application of Gestalt therapy in addressing the relationship between a parent and child.  A comparison of Gestalt and Adlerian theories are made through the presentation of two cases.  The P.A.C.E. acronym provides a foundation for the integration of Gestalt and Adlerian theories.


  1. List three observations that you make about the focus of Gestalt therapy from reading the description of the work of David and Erv.
  2. Name and describe the elements of the P.A.C.E. acronym.
  3. Using the cases presented in the article, how are Gestalt and Adlerian approaches similar, and how are they different?

Chapter 10 Multicultural Psychotherapy Theories

Multicultural Personality: An Evolving Theory of Optimal Functioning in Culturally Heterogeneous Societies   By Joseph G. Ponterotto

The article presents a summary of Ponterotto’s theory of Multicultural Personality. The Multicultural Personality provides a framework for individuals seeking to understand personality elements and competencies that may improve communications and human relations across a variety of cultural differences and categories.


  1. Examine the definition of the Multicultural Personality. Is there any aspect that you would remove from this definition? Is there any aspect that you would remove from the definition? Why or why not? Which aspects of this definition are most significant, in your opinion?The author describes Gestalt theory as shifting focus from the structure of (what is) toprocess (what role do I have in creating what is). What is the role of counselor awareness in this shift?
  2. What, in your opinion, are the benefits to the field of counseling psychology of further research and development of the concept of the Multicultural Personality?
  3. Describe a research study that you would develop to further explore the concept of the Multicultural Personality? What variables and parameters would your study include or reference?

Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments  By Len Sperry

The article describes a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments based upon an assessment of personality, family dynamics, health and/or medical conditions. A case study is included to demonstrate the strategy.


  1. What is the difference between cultural sensitivity and cultural competence? Is it possible for a counselor to practice one, but not both of these concepts? Describe what is necessary to move from cultural sensitivity to cultural competence?
  2. In your view, how comprehensive are the seven guidelines for selecting a culturally sensitive treatment? Are there any additions or modifications to these guidelines that you would recommend?
  3. Considering the four categories examined through this strategy (cultural dynamics, personality dynamics, family dynamics, and health), which of these would be the most difficult for you to assess and evaluate? Why? Which would be the easiest to assess and evaluate? Why?

Chapter 11 Transcultural Psychotherapy

The Psychohistorical Approach in Family Counseling With Mestizo/Latino Immigrants: A Continuum and Synergy of Worldviews   By Patricia Arredondo, Robert M. Davison Avilés, Carlos P. Zalaquett, Maria del Pilar Grazioso, Veronica Bordes, Liza Hita and Belinda J. Lopez

The article discussions contextual variables, demographics regarding Mestizos / Latinos, ethnic-heritage themes. Recommendations for transcultural counseling are made and a case study is presented. The authors are immigrant, first and second-generation status.


  1. What is the psychohistorical approach to counseling and how does it support transcultural counseling?
  2. What is the meaning of acculturation and how does it impact one’s identity and worldview?
  3. What are the experiences that have most significantly impacted your own worldview? If you were to describe your own world view, what interactions, experiences, beliefs, and traditions would you describe?

A Practical Skills Model for Effectively Engaging Clients in Multicultural Settings   By Anthony J. Alberta and Anita H. Wood

The article describes an approach that counselors can use to develop their ability to practice in a culturally competent manner. The approach emphasizes basic counseling skills of empathy, communication, and relationship building. The goal of the approach is to assist counselors in moving from cultural encapsulation to cultural engagement.


  1. What is the definition offered in the article for multicultural engagement? How does this definition promote the practice of transcultural counseling?
  2. After reading the article, how would you approach building a shared worldview with a counseling client who is visibly different from you? Describe a client that you have worked with who is different from you and how you did (or would) build a shared worldview?
  3. Describe and give an example of diunital reasoning. How does this practice support the engagement of clients in multicultural settings?

Chapter 12 Feminist Therapy and Lesbian and Gay Therapy

What Makes Feminist Counselling Feminist?   By Andrea Chester and Diane Bretherton

The article explores understandings and applications of feminist counseling. A survey of opinions about feminist counseling was completed in Australia and compared with similar survey results in North America. Feminist is viewed and considered as a set of values and attitudes from which a therapist works.


  1. What role do you believe that the following topics play in feminist approaches to counseling: Oppression, Sociopolitical systems, and male privilege?
  2. Examine the listing of characteristics within Table 3, on page 539. Which characteristics are most salient for you as a counselor, and which are most difficult for you to implement?
  3. How do you define feminism? What have you learned about feminism from your own experiences and from the experiences of significant women in your life?

Reflections on Understanding and Ameliorating Internalized Heterosexism  By James M. Croteau

The article describes the current research approaches and limitations in understanding internalized heterosexism in counseling psychology research. Questions of population sampling, diversity within sample populations, qualitative research, and experience-near research are discussed and put forth for further consideration and implementation.


  1. Please describe what is referred to as “experience-near” research within the article.
  2. How would you describe internalized heterosexism, and how would you work with a client who may be questioning or experiencing internalized heterosexism?
  3. Describe the connections that exist between qualitative research, experience-near research, and empathy.

Chapter 13 Solution-Focused Therapy

Examining the Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Meta-Analysis  By Johnny S. Kim

The article describes a meta-analysis and systematic review of research related to solution focused brief therapy, with the goal of examining evidence that may support this model of counseling. Implications for policy creation are discussed.


  1. What are some of the reasons that counselors from a wide array of disciplines have begun to examine and implement solution focused brief therapy? What is your reaction to these perceived or real benefits of solution focused brief therapy?
  2. What are the seven core elements of solution focused brief therapy that were used to screen studies to be included in the meta – analysis?
  3. List and describe three limitations that existed in this meta-analysis.

Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Groupwork with At-Risk Junior High School Students: Enhancing the Bottom Line   By W. Sean Newsome

The article describes an investigation of the impact of solution focused brief therapy groupwork on school attendance and gpa for a group of at-risk junior high school students. Pre and Post-tests were administered to students and comparison between a short term brief therapy group and a control group who did not receive this intervention were made.


  1. Please describe how solution focused brief therapy groups are structured to achieve proactive change.
  2. What are some of the validity threats that present challenges in generalizing the results of this study to other applications of solution focused brief therapy groupwork to address attendance and gpa (at-risk junior high school students)?
  3. Design a solution focused brief therapy group for an issue that you believe is particularly relevant for a population that you want to work with and serve.

Chapter 14 Narrative Therapy

Ethics of Family Narrative Therapy  By Christopher Peyton Miller and Alan W. Forrest

The article describes ethical dilemmas encountered when applying narrative family therapy. Narrative therapy has the capacity to reconstruct individual family members’ experiences and stories while re-creating a family narrative story. Ethical concerns may arise as a family narrative story is examined at the same time that individual family member narratives are examined.


  1. Describe the ethical dilemma related to confidentiality that is communicated in the case example related in this article.
  2. Are there additional situations (in addition to family therapy) where ethical issues around confidentiality may apply to the practice of narrative therapy? Please give an example.
  3. After reading the article, what is, in your opinion, in the best interest of the Barker family?

Bridging the Power Gap : Narrative Therapy With Incarcerated Women  By Annette M. Mahoney and Carol Ann Daniel

The article demonstrates the clinical application of narrative therapy with a population of incarcerated women. Empowerment and understanding, through the deconstruction and reconstruction of narrative stories, are described and demonstrated in the article.


  1. The author states that many of the theories of psychology applied in prison settings perpetuate models of authority, reinforcing feelings of powerlessness among prison populations. How is the issue of power approached within a Narrative Therapy framework?
  2. Describe, in your own words, the process of change that the author demonstrates through the application of narrative therapy.
  3. What challenges does a prison setting present to the implementation of a narrative counseling program or approach? Describe what you would do to address or overcome these challenges.

Chapter 15 Spiritual / Religious Therapy

Spirituality of Our Lives: An Interview With Harry Aponte 
By Sheena Horsford

The article consists of an interview with Harry Aponte. At the time the interview is recorded, Dr. Aponte is a faculty member at Drexel University’s Couple and Marriage Therapy, Philadelphia PA. Dr. Aponte reflects upon the meaning of spirituality in life and in counseling work.


  1. After reading the article, how do you define the concept of spirituality? Reflect upon your own experience of spirituality. What role does spirituality play in your life, in your work or study?
  2. What does it mean to be differentiated from the client and to be able to identify with the client at the same time?
  3. What role do you believe that self-awareness, self-reflection, and self-understanding play in exploring issues related to spirituality in counseling?

Relationship Betrayal and the Influence of Religious Beliefs: A Case Illustration of Couples Counseling  By Donna M. Gibson

The article explores the role of religion and spirituality in the experience of relationship betrayal within couples. The author examines the intersection of relationship betrayal and religious beliefs. A case study is included in the article.


  1. How would you inquire about or incorporate spirituality into counseling work with individuals or couples who do not ascribe to a particular religious category or faith community?
  2. Create your own outline of how you would support couples who experience relationship betrayal. How would you incorporate questions about spirituality in this outline? What are the specific challenges that you expect to face as you engage in this work?
  3. Are there circumstances when you would disclose your own experiences of spirituality? Are there circumstances where you would refrain from disclosing your own spiritual beliefs? Describe the factors that influence your decision of whether or not to disclose?

Chapter 16 Strength-Based Therapy

Using Strength-Based Approaches to Explore Pretreatment Change in Men Who Abuse Their Partners  By Susan Eckerle Curwood, Ian DeGeer, Peter Hymmen and Peter Lehmann

The article describes a study where a sample of men who abuse their partners discuss the values, goals, and perceived benefits of being arrested. Goals related to self-improvement, relationships, and commitment to family form the foundation from which strengths based counseling are applied. Perceptions of men who abuse their partners and their willingness to change are challenged through the research study. Alternative ways of acting, reacting, and being are emphasized through the approach that the study examines


  1. From the article, how do the stages of change build upon the identification and reflection upon one’s strengths?
  2. How can an examination of strengths assist men who abuse their partners in repairing and strengthening relationships?
  3. Describe some of the limitations of the study, particularly as related to the identification of the sample of men participating in the study?

The Strength-Based Counseling Model  By Elsie J. Smith

The article proposes a model of applying a strength-based counseling approach to working with at-risk youth. A case example is included with reference to protective and risk factors, as well as ethical considerations in applying a strengths-based counseling approach.


  1. The article asserts that strengths-based counseling represents a paradigm shift within the field of psychology. What is meant by this paradigm shift?
  2. How does a strength-based counseling approach intersect with narrative therapy and solution focused therapy?
  3. Select a counseling topic (other than at-risk youth) and apply the 10 stages of strengths-based counseling that are described in this article. What is missing, if anything, from these stages?

Chapter 17 Family Therapy Approaches

A Family Systems Perspective to Recovery From Posttraumatic Stress in Children  By Stephanie Bernardon and Francesca Pernice-Duca

The article describes how a family systems approach to working with children and families that have experienced trauma promotes reorganization necessary to build resourcefulness and resilience when experiencing challenges. Focus of addressing the posttraumatic stress is to improve comprehensive family functioning.


  1. Based upon information contained in the article, can you explain the benefit of addressing PTSD with an entire family system, compared to addressing it with an individual child (sole member of the system)?
  2. Describe briefly the seven main approaches referenced in the article that are used to assist children and families in overcoming trauma. What else would you include that is not listed or described in this article?
  3. Can you outline a brief study that would examine the approach described in this article? How would you measure the effectiveness of the family systems intervention?

Family Secrets: An Illustrative Clinical Case Study Guided by Bowen Family Systems Theory   By Donna G. Knauth

The article describes the application of Bowen Family Systems Theory to understanding family relationship and symptom formation within a family system that includes family secrets. The transmission of relationship formation across generations is examined for its influence on health


  1. Describe and give an example of the concept of “differentiation of self” within a family system.
  2. What is the relationship described in the article between the existence of family secrets and level of differentiation within the family? Do you agree or disagree with this description? Why or Why not?
  3. Table 2 describes Steps to Defining a Self. Which step do you believe would me most difficult for you to facilitate when you work with clients? Why would this step be difficult for you?

Chapter 18 Comparing and Contrasting the Theories
of Psychotherapy

Recovering From Abuse: A Comparison of Three Paths  
By Steven L. Baumann

The article compares and contrasts three approaches that Nurses may implement in assisting patients who are recovering from abuse. The article compares some of the philosophical underpinnings of a traditional psychiatric model, a spiritually based model, and a human becoming model.


  1. Describe briefly the three philosophical approaches noted in this article, the traditional psychiatric model, the spiritually based model, and the human becoming model. What are their similarities and their differences?
  2. Based upon your knowledge of counseling theories, can you identify counseling theories that align with each of these philosophical approaches to human change?
  3. When comparing counseling theories, what criteria do you find valuable in assessing the effectiveness and applicability of a theory to a counseling client and presented concern?

Short-Term, Linear Approaches To Psychotherapy: What We Now Know   By David N. Elkins

The article summarizes a recent meta-analysis that challenges the effectiveness of short term, linear approaches to psychotherapy. The author suggests that these approaches be embedded in broader, more complex theoretical framework, such as humanistic-existential therapy.


  1. Describe the main points of the article that support that short-term, linear approaches to psychotherapy do not fully address a client’s emotional pain or the context of that pain.
  2. What is your reaction to the author’s description of the client’s presenting problem as a “surface problem”? In your opinion, what counseling theories most effectively explore beneath the “surface problem”?
  3. Near the conclusion of the article, the author puts forth several recommendations for emerging professionals and students in counseling and psychotherapy. How can you incorporate these recommendations into your own training program and experiences? Are there any missing areas within these recommendations that you would add?

Chapter 19 Integrative Psychotherapy

Integrative Confusion: An Examination of Integrative Models in Couple and Family Therapy   By Robert L. Smith and Stephen Southern

The article explores the definition and application of integrative approaches to counseling in the context of couple and family therapy.


  1. Describe briefly the advantages that you perceive in applying an integrative theoretical framework? What are the disadvantages?
  2. What challenges exist in defining integrative counseling models, and how do these challenges contribute to what is referred to as integrative confusion?
  3. Define what is meant by integrative problem solving therapy and provide an example of a case where you would consider implementing this approach.

Practice for a Paradigm Shift : A Complete Model for an Integrative Course   By Camille DeBell

Consistent with the paradigm shift advocated by the articles in this issue, this article introduces a client conceptualization model for vocational and a vocational choice, entry, and adjustment that can be used to structure an integrative, contextual course in counseling psychology. An overviewof the use of models in vocational psychology is presented, as well as a detailed description and visual representation of the present Model. Suggestions are made for integrative and traditional pedagogy, and resource materials are cited. Evaluative data indicate that earlier versions of the Model have been well received by students and others with whom it has been used. These data are discussed, and suggestions for researching the utility of the Model are made.


  1. Describe the use of models and theories in counseling? How do they support the counselor and counseling process? What are some of the misperceptions about models and theories that exist?
  2. Examine the framework of the 5 Circles presented in this new model. What theories support each of these circles? What areas are omitted from this model that you would encourage practitioners to consider while implementing the model?
  3. The author proposes that the model presented can be applied in contexts beyond career development. Cite several other presenting concerns that this model could be implemented (or adjusted and implemented) to address.