Close Window
Home Page Chapter Menu

Suggested Readings

These readings have been chosen by the authors to help increase your understanding of the course content. Brief descriptions of the readings are followed by their bibliographic information.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Approaches and Methods
Chapter 2: A Historical Perspective on Behavior and Classroom Management
Chapter 3: Building Positive Teacher-Student Relationships
Chapter 4: Community Approaches
Chapter 5: Learning Approaches
Chapter 6: Developmental Approaches
Chapter 7: Organizational Approaches
Chapter 8: The Classroom Systems Approach
Chapter 9: Cultural Approaches
Chapter 10: The Medical Model and Organic Approaches to Behavior Management
Conclusion: Integrating Discipline and Care

Chapter 1: Introduction to Approaches and Methods

As Baumrind’s categories have figured so centrally in discussions of styles of control, you will benefit from reading one of her original articles on this topic (Baumrind, 1970). The same is true of Wolfgang, Glickman, and Tamashiro’s ways of describing different styles of control (Glickman & Tamashiro, 1980). Finally, Ronald Butchart’s introduction to the book he co-edited with Barbara McEwan (Butchart, 1998a) provides a nice way to frame the issues, one that complements and extends those discussed throughout the introduction in Approaches to Behavior and Classroom Management.

Baumrind, D. (1970).
Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children.
Young Children, 26
(2), 104-119.

Butchart, R. (1998a).
Introduction. In R. Butchart & B. McEwan (Eds.),
Classroom Discipline in American Schools: Problems and Possibilities for Democratic Education.
Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

Glickman, C., & Tamashiro, R. (1980).
Clarifying teachers’ beliefs about discipline.
Educational Leadership
(37), 459-464.

top

Chapter 2: A Historical Perspective on Behavior and Classroom Management

Ronald Butchart provides a history of discipline in American schools (Butchart, 1998b) that nicely complements the coverage in Approaches to Behavior and Classroom Management. Glassman (Glassman, 2001) includes a solid discussion comparing progressive education to traditional 19 th century approaches to education. This coverage provides a clear understanding of the context in which progressive approaches to discipline developed. Similarly, chapters from Cremin’s short book on American education (Cremin, 1965) can be used for additional context on the topic of discipline. Finally, Jones and Tanner (Jones & Tanner, 1981) provide insight by linking Dewey’s discussions of curriculum and appealing to children’s interests to the topic of discipline.

Butchart, R. (1998b).
Punishments, penalties, prizes, and procedures: A history of discipline in U.S. schools.
In R. Butchart & B. McEwan (Eds.), Classroom Discipline in American Schools: Problems and Possibilities for Democratic Education. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

Cremin, L. (1965).
The genius of American education.
New York: Vintage Books.

Glassman, M. (2001).
Dewey and Vygotsky: Society, experience, and inquiry in educational practice.
Educational Researcher, 30
(4), 3-14.

Jones, R., & Tanner, L. (1981).
Classroom discipline: the unclaimed legacy.
Phi Delta Kappan
(March), 494-497.

top

Chapter 3: Building Positive Teacher-Student Relationships

Brendtro’s essay (Brendtro, 1969) is still a classic and is a must-read for those studying classroom management. Hoy and Weinstein provide a nice, empirically based discussion (Hoy & Weinstein, 2006) of students’ and teachers’ perspectives on behavior and classroom management – one that directly pertains to the subject of what makes for positive student-teacher relationships. Carducci’s research report (Carducci, 1976) provides an empirical basis for adopting Thomas Gordon’s concepts and suggestions for cultivating positive teacher-student relationships, and Joseph Tobin’s book (Tobin, 1997) provides chapters that make clear the issues around using touch as a way to relate to students.

Brendtro, L. (1969).
Establishing relationship beachheads.
In A. Trieschman, J. Whitaker & L. Brendtro (Eds.), The others 23 hours (pp. 51-99). Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.

Carducci, R. (1976).
A comparison of I-messages with commands in the control of disruptive classroom behavior.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 36
(11B), 573.

Hoy, A. W., & Weinstein, C. (2006).
Student and teacher perspectives on classroom management.
In C. Evertson & C. Weinstein (Eds.), Classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tobin, J. (1997).
Playing doctor in two cultures: The United States and Ireland.
In J. Tobin (Ed.), Making a place for pleasure in early childhood education. New Haven, CT.: Yale University Press.

top

Chapter 4: Community Approaches

Glasser’s focus on quality schools (Glasser, 1998) and Butchart and McEwan’s edited book on school discipline (Butchart & McEwan, 1998) provide many options for information related to building positive classroom communities. And for examples of good discussion about caring, the work of Noddings (Noddings, 2002) and Watson (Watson & Battistich, 2006) are well worth considering. Finally, Gathercoal’s judicious discipline approach (Gathercoal, 1993, 1998) and Olweus’ work on school bullying (Olweus, 2001, 2004) provide insights as to how justice and injustice can work in schools to foster or undermine classroom and school communities.

Butchart, R., & McEwan, B. (Eds.). (1998).
Classroom discipline in American schools: problems and possibilities for democratic education.
Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

Gathercoal, F. (1993).
Judicious discipline (3rd ed .).
San Francisco, CA: Caddo Gap Press.

Gathercoal, F. (1998).
Judicious discipline.
In R. Butchart & B. McEwan (Eds.), Classroom discipline in American schools: Problems and possibilities for democratic education. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

Glasser, W. (1998).
The quality school: Managing students without coercion (2nd ed.).
New York: Harper Collins.

Noddings, N. (2002).
Educating moral people: A caring alternative to character education.
New York: Teachers College Press.

Olweus, D. (2001).
Peer harassment: A critical analysis and some important issues.
In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in schools: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 3-20). New York: The Guilford Press.

Olweus, D. (2004).
Bullying at school
.
Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Watson, M., & Battistich, V. (2006).
Building and sustaining caring communities.
In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

top

Chapter 5: Learning Approaches

Vygotsky’s (Vygotsky, 1978) article relating learning to development remains the best on this topic, so it is a highly recommended read. Similarly, DeVries and Kohlberg’s discussion of constructivist, cultural transmission, and romantic models of education can help you to better understand models of teaching. One of the best reviews of behaviorist approaches (concepts, distinctions, methods) is Landrum and Kauffman’s review (Landrum & Kauffman, 2006), so it can be used to reinforce information on systematic behavioral learning approaches. Finally, the Canters’ updated version of their previous work on assertive discipline (Canter & Canter, 1992) should be read as it shows the influence of behaviorism and covers a concept (assertive discipline) that has had a tremendous influence over the past several decades.

DeVries, R., & Kohlberg, L. (1990).
Constructivist early education: Overview and comparison with other programs.
Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Canter, L., & Canter, M. (1992).
Assertive discipline: Positive behavior management for today's classroom (2nd ed.).
Santa Monica, CA: Lee Canter & Associates.

Landrum, T. J., & Kauffman, J. M. (2006).
Behavioral approaches to classroom management.
In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Vygotsky, L. (1978).
Interaction between learning and development.
In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman (Eds.), Mind in society (pp. 79-91). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

top

Chapter 6: Developmental Approaches

Kolhberg and Lickona’s essay (Kohlberg & Lickona, 1990) is one of the finest examples of a developmental approach coming from the cognitive-constructivist tradition and one directly focusing on issues pertaining to behavior and classroom management. Similarly, Fritz Redl’s work (Redl, 1966; Redl & Wineman, 1965) still provides the best examples of developmental thinking from the psychodynamic tradition that directly addresses management issues. Alfie Kohn’s work (Kohn, 1996) also provides examples of a developmental approach to behavior management.

Kohlberg, L., & Lickona, T. (1990).
Moral Discussion and The Class Meeting.
In R. DeVries & L. Kohlberg (Eds.), Constructivist early education: overview and comparison with other programs. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Kohn, A. (1996).
Beyond discipline: From compliance to community.
Alexandria, BA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Redl, F. (1966).
When we deal with children: selected writings.
New York: The Free Press.

Redl, F., & Wineman, D. (1965).
Controls from within.
New York: Free Press.

top

Chapter 7: Organizational Approaches

Doyle’s review chapter (Doyle, 2006) provides a good overview of what are essentially organization approaches. Jere Brophy’s discussion (Brophy, 1999) provides a historical perspective on classroom management and the shift toward thinking about organization. Slavin’s edited book (Slavin, 1989) includes a number of excellent essays that report research on different kinds of organization (e.g., time) and their effect on students. And for a discussion of challenges in organizing special education teams, Thomas Skrtic’s essay (Skrtic, 1991) may still be the most thought-provoking.

Brophy, J. (1999).
Perspectives on classroom management: yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
In J. Freiberg (Ed.), Beyond behaviorism: changing the classroom management paradigm. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Doyle, W. (2006).
Ecological approaches to classroom management.
In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Skrtic, T. (1991).
The special education paradox: equity as the way to excellence.
Harvard Educational Review, 61
(2), 148-206.

Slavin, R. E. (Ed.). (1989).
School and classroom organization.
Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

top

Chapter 8: The Classroom Systems Approach

Family systems theory is not widely used by educators, and because of this, there are fewer resources than are found for other approaches. Molnar and Lindquist’s book (Molnar & Lindquist, 1989) is the best source for additional information. There are also chapters in Minuchin’s book on family therapy (Minuchin, 1974) that could be assigned to further define the core concepts in a systems approach (e.g., the concept of boundary). Seymour Sarason’s work (Sarason, 1982) provides a strong basis for understanding schools as systems and systems as impediments to change (i.e., reading this work will make readers aware of how difficult it is to bring about lasting change). Kristen Willand’s wonderful case study (Willand, 1998) provides a good example of a systems approach (that is also a developmental approach) in action.

Minuchin, S. (1974).
Families and family therapy.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Molnar, A., & Lindquist, B. (1989).
Changing problem behavior in schools.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Sarason, S. (1982).
The culture of the school and the problem of change (2nd ed.).
Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Willand, K. (1998).
Developmental education as special education.
In W. G. Scarlett (Ed.), Trouble in the classroom: managing the behavior problems of young children. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass, Inc.

top

Chapter 9: Cultural Approaches

Discussions from Delpit’s book (Delpit, 1995) provide ways to sensitize students to the challenges of teaching students from different cultures, and George Noblit’s work (Noblit, 1993) provides ways to show how it is possible to work within a culture that is not one’s own. Kusserow’s discussions of social class (Kusserow, 2004) can serve as a way to sensitize students to the influence of social class and how social class effects teaching and discipline. Finally, in her case study of her struggles to overcome her limitations when teaching children from a different culture, Cindy Ballenger (Ballenger, 1998) offers an excellent example of how culture can challenge teachers but also of how teachers can meet the challenge.

Ballenger, C. (1998).
Culture and behavior problems: the language of control.
In W. G. Scarlett (Ed.), Trouble in the classroom: managing the behavior problems of young children (pp. 149). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Delpit, L. (1995).
Other people's children: cultural conflict in the classroom.
New York: The New Press.

Kusserow, A. (2004).
American individualism.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Noblit, G. W. (1993).
Power and Caring.
American Educational Research Journal, 30
(Spring), 23-38.

top

Chapter 10: The Medical Model and Organic Approaches to Behavior Management

Chapter 10 differs from the others due to its focus on widespread systems for categorizing children and services. Therefore, it is often helpful to familiarize yourself with the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2000) – or at least the sections pertaining to the children and adolescents – and with the U.S. Department of Education’s Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (U.S. Dept. Education, 2004). Michael Rutter’s work (Rutter, Tuma, & Lann, 1988) provides among the best discussions of the problems and necessities in making psychiatric diagnoses.

APA. (2000).
Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision) (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, (2004).

Rutter, M., Tuma, A. H., & Lann, I. (Eds.). (1988).
Assessment and diagnosis in child psychopathology.
New York: Guilford Press.

top

Conclusion: Integrating Discipline and Care

The discussion on the yin-yang symbol by the great comparative religions expert, Cantwell Smith (Smith, 1998) provides an excellent argument for the usefulness of the symbol for understanding and making use of dualistic thinking such as that found in discussions of behavior and classroom management.

Smith, W. C. (1998).
Patterns of faith around the world.
Boston, MA: Oneworld Publications.

top