Study Site for Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Behavior, 2nd Edition
Psychological Research Perspectives
John Jung

Learning from SAGE Research Articles

Here are links to one or more downloadable research articles from Sage Journals to extend your understanding of the material for each chapter. Most of the articles cover topics found in more than one chapter.

Published journal articles use many advanced statistical techniques that will be unfamiliar to most undergraduates. You should focus on the following tasks listed below and not get bogged down reading the statistical analyses.

For each journal article, you should be prepared to do the following:

1. Describe the major objectives or goals of this article?

2. Explain how the literature reviewed led to the hypotheses?

3. Describe the research design or method(s) of the study.

4. Describe the sequence of procedures used to obtain the data.

5. Describe the logic and reasoning of the data analysis.

6. Summarize findings that supported the research predictions.

7. Describe how researchers explained any unexpected findings.

8. Suggest some logical studies for future research on this topic.

9. Describe the major contributions of the research.

10. Suggest some applications of the findings.


Note: Click on each link to expand and view the content then click again to collapse.

Chapter 1: Alcohol and Other Drugs

Pleasure, Freedom and Drugs: The Uses of ‘Pleasure’ in Liberal Governance of Drug and Alcohol Consumption
Pat O’Malley and Mariana Valverde
Sociology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 25-42 (2004)

The article explores the ways in which discourses of pleasure are deployed strategically in official commentaries on drug and alcohol consumption. Pleasure as a warrantable motive for, or descriptor of, drug and alcohol consumption appears to be silenced the more that consumption appears problematic for liberal government. Tracing examples of this from the 18th century to the present, it is argued that discourses of ‘pleasure’ are linked to discourses of reason and freedom, so that problematic drug consumption appears both without reason (for example ‘bestial’) and unfree (for example ‘compulsive’), and thus not as ‘pleasant’. In turn, changes in this articulation of pleasure, drugs and freedom can be linked with shifts in the major forms taken by liberal governance in the past two centuries, as these constitute freedom differently.

Studying Cultural Change: Were the Changes in Alcohol and Coffee Consumption in the Nineteenth Century a Case of Beverage Substitution?
Ole-Jørgen Skog
Acta Sociologica, Vol. 49, No. 3, 287-302 (2006)

Was the decline in alcohol consumption, experienced in many countries during the nineteenth century, related to growth of the coffee culture? This question is approached first through a simple content analysis of qualitative data obtained from an empirical sociological study of inebriety in Norway in the 1850s by Norway’s first sociologist, Eilert Sundt [1859], then by a time-series analysis of quantitative data on coffee and alcoholic beverages in Norway. The results confirm that coffee filled a cultural ‘niche’ created by the restrictive Norwegian alcohol policy in the nineteenth century. Sundt’s qualitative data point clearly in this direction. Although the quantitative data - particularly on coffee - are far from ideal indicators of consumption, the results lend some credibility to the substitution hypothesis: The trends coincide fairly closely for the two beverages, and in the detrended series there are measurable signs of correlation when the confounding effects of economic development are controlled for. It is concluded that the political attempts to reduce alcohol problems in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, i.e. reduced availability and increased taxes, may have been alleviated by the growing popularity of coffee as an alternative, ‘new’ beverage for the population at large, and not just the higher social classes.

Chapter 2: Theories Related to Addictions

Why Do We Drink? A History and Philosophy of Heredity and Alcoholism.
Mark C. Russell
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, 48-55 (2002)

In this paper, the author examines hereditary explanations of alcoholism in two historical snapshots: the early decades of the 20th century and in the 1990s. Two things come to light. First is the persistence of an "entrepreneurial spirit," and second is a remarkable failure to take into account the many-leveled heterogeneity in causes of alcoholism. The author describes some sources of this heterogeneity and shows epistemological problems that arise from it suggest the failure of genetic accounts to consider the social dimensions of disease classification, observation, and diagnosis that form the very basis of the designation "alcoholic."

Evidence for Positive Mood Buffering Among College Student Drinkers.
Mohr, Cynthia D., Brannan, Debi, Mohr, Josh, Armeli, Stephen, and Tennen, Howard
Pers Soc Psychol Bull, Sep 2008; vol. 34: pp. 1249-1259

Positive experiences play an important role in buffering the effects of negative experiences. Although this process can play out in a myriad of contexts, the college context is one of particular importance because of significant concerns about student stress levels and alcohol abuse. Building on evidence that at least some students drink in response to negative experiences, we considered the possibility that positive moods would moderate college student negative mood--drinking relationships. Using a Web-based daily process study of 118 (57% women) undergraduate student drinkers, the authors reveal that positive moods indeed buffer the effects of negative moods on student drinking, depending on the mood and drinking context. Furthermore, the buffering of ashamed mood appears to explain the buffering of other negative moods. Implications of these findings are considered in terms of the relationship between negative self-awareness and drinking to cope.

A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement.
Vangie A. Foshee, Susan T. Ennett, Karl E. Bauman, Douglas A. Granger, Thad Benefield, Chirayath Suchindran et al.
The Journal of Early Adolescence, Vol. 27, No. 1, 4-39 (2007)

The authors test biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in Grades 6 and 8. Models including the biological and contextual variables and their interactions explain significantly more variance in adolescent cigarette and alcohol involvement than do models including only the main effects of the biological and contextual variables. Post hoc analyses of significant interactions suggest that, in most cases, moderation occurred in the hypothesized direction. Consistent with dual hazards models of adolescent antisocial behaviors, the relationships between the biological and substance use variables become positive and stronger as the context becomes more harmful. Considerations of adolescent substance use should recognize the possible role of biological variables and how their influence may vary by social context.

Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: a model for the study of addictions in youth.
Timothy E. Wilens and Joseph Biederman
Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 20, No. 4, 580-588 (2006)

There has been increasing interest in the developmental origins of substance use disorders (SUDs) in children and adolescents. Because of its early onset, high prevalence and known risk for SUD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a model developmental disorder to evaluate in context to SUDs. A selected review of the literature was undertaken examining ADHD as an antecedent disorder to subsequent SUD. ADHD and its co-occurring comorbid psychopathology increase the risk for cigarette smoking and SUD and is associated with greater SUD severity and chronicity. The treatment of ADHD appears to decrease the risk for cigarette smoking and SUD. ADHD is an important antecedent disorder in children and adolescents worthy of further targeted preventive efforts to diminish the risk for cigarette smoking and SUD.

Chapter 3: DSM IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

What is Wrong with the DSM?
Rachel Cooper
History of Psychiatry, Vol. 15, No. 1, 5-25 (2004)

The DSM is the main classification of mental disorders used by psychiatrists in the United States and, increasingly, around the world. Although widely used, the DSM has come in for fierce criticism, with many commentators believing it to be conceptually flawed in a variety of ways. This paper assesses some of these philosophical worries. The first half of the paper asks whether the project of constructing a classification of mental disorders that ‘cuts nature at the joints’ makes sense. What is mental disorder? Are types of mental disorder natural kinds (that is, are the distinctions between them objective and of fundamental theoretical importance, as are, say, the distinctions between the chemical elements)? The second half of the paper addresses epistemic worries. Even if types of mental disorder are natural kinds there may be reason to doubt that the DSM will come to reflect their natural structure. In particular, I examine the extent to which the DSM is theory-laden, and look at how it has been shaped by social and financial factors. Ultimately, I conclude that although the DSM is of immense practical importance it is not likely to become the best possible classification of mental disorders.

Cross-Cultural Validity of Alcohol Dependence Across Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Caucasians.
Adam C. Carle
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Feb 2008; vol. 30: pp. 106-120

Confirmatory factor analyses for ordered-categorical measures probed for differential item functioning on a standardized measure of alcohol dependence across Hispanics (n = 834) and non-Hispanic Caucasians (n = 14,001) in a nationally representative survey of alcohol use in the United States conducted in 1992. Analyses investigated whether 30 items operationalizing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) construct of alcohol dependence provided equivalent measurement. The results demonstrated statistically significant differential item functioning for 7 items, suggesting caution regarding the cross-ethnic validity of alcohol dependence. Sensitivity analyses suggested that item-level differences had a limited impact, lending confidence to previous findings. The findings underscore the necessity of cultural sensitivity when generalizing measures and constructs developed in the majority to Hispanic individuals and demonstrate the need for evaluations of differential item functioning in contemporary data.

Chapter 4: Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Problems

A comparative analysis of different methods for obtaining estimates of alcohol consumption in a Danish population survey.
Kirsten Fonager and Svend Sabroe
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 29, No. 4, 256-262 (2001)

Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare different measures of alcohol consumption used in a Danish survey. Methods: A stratified random sample was extracted from the Civil Registration System. From January 1997 to January 1998 approximately 8 telephone interviews were conducted every day, including Sundays and holidays, ending with a total of 3,050 interviews after 1 year. Two main approaches to measure alcohol consumption were used: the quantity-frequency and the recent occasion approaches; the latter is subdivided into previous week and previous day approaches. Results: The overall estimated number of units (= 12 g of pure alcohol) per week was 6.8 (95% confidence intervals (CI ): 6.5- 7.1) , 6.7 (95% CI: 6.4-7.1 ) and 8.5 (95% CI: 7.8-9.1 ) for the quantity-frequency, previous week and previous day approaches, respectively. A total of 50% of the men and 70% of the women did not drink alcohol the previous day. Among people classified as high consumers in the previous week and previous day approaches, less than 60% and 30%, respectively, were similarly classified in the quantity-frequency approach. Conclusion: There was agreement on the level of alcohol consumption between the quantity-frequency and previous week approaches, but higher estimates when using the previous day approach. The previous day approach varied more in relation to the interview day and season compared with the quantity-frequency approach and the previous week approach. The recent occasions approach showed some difficulties in classifying the individuals. If the alcohol consumption is included in a model as a risk indicator or a confounder, the quantity-frequency approach would be more preferable than the recent occasion approach.

Changes in Youth Smoking, 1976–2002: A Time-Series Analysis.
Fred C. Pampel and Jade Aguilar
Youth & Society, Vol. 39, No. 4, 453-479 (2008)

During the past several decades, smoking prevalence among youth has fluctuated in puzzling and unexpected ways. To help understand these changes, this study tests seven explanations: (a) compositional changes, (b) sample selection, (c) adult smoking, (d) social strain, (e) cigarette prices, (f) tobacco advertising, and (g) other drug use. Figures on smoking prevalence come from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) Surveys from 1976–2002, whereas figures on aggregate determinants for the same time period come from government publications. Graphs of the time-series trends to determine temporal correspondence and time-series regression models to test for statistical influence reveal two variables that have expected effects. Increases in cigarette prices reduce smoking, particularly in the most recent years, and higher marijuana initiation (or use) is associated with greater smoking during most of the time period. However, much of the change in youth smoking, particularly the most recent rise and fall, remains unexplained.

Chapter 5: Neurobiology

The neurotoxicity of alcohol.
Clive Harper
Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 26, No. 3, 251-257 (2007)

Patterns of drinking are changing throughout the world and in many countries this will be detrimental to the health and welfare of the local population. Even uncomplicated alcoholics who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Many of these changes are exaggerated and other brain regions damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative neuropathology techniques and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood. A human brain bank targeting alcohol cases has been established in Sydney, Australia and provides fresh and frozen tissue for alcohol researchers. The tissues can be used to test hypotheses developed from structural neuropathological studies or from animal models and in vitro studies. Identification of reversible pathological changes and preventative medical approaches in alcoholism should enhance rehabilitation and treatment efforts, thereby mitigating debilitating morbidities and reducing mortality associated with this universal public health problem.

Nicotine Addiction: From Molecules to Behavior.
Marina R. Picciotto
Neuroscientist 4:391-394, 1998

Drugs of abuse, Including nicotine, activate common pathways in the brain that lead to reinforcement and addiction. Each drug, however, has unique molecular targets. This article describes what is known about the neurobiological processes underlying the reinforcing actions of nicotine that ultimately lead to nicotine dependence. The pathway starts with binding of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, its biochemical targets in the brain, which results in altered dopamine physiology and, ultimately, smoking behavior. Experiments using genetically altered mice have begun to identify the molecules involved in this pathway. This type of experiment will ultimately allow identification of the individual molecules in the brain that carry out the steps leading to nicotine addiction and may identify sites of intervention that could lead to novel treatments for nicotine addiction.

Chapter 6: Genetics

Nature and Nurture: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Behavior.
Robert Plomin and Kathryn Asbury
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 600, No. 1, 86-98 (2005)

The appropriate conjunction between the words nature and nurture is not versus but and. There is increasing acceptance of the evidence for substantial genetic influence on many behavioral traits, but the same research also provides the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influence and important clues about how the environment works. Because much developmental action is at the interface between genes and environment, genetic research needs to incorporate measures of the environment, and environmental research will be enhanced by collecting DNA.

Chapter 7: Alcohol And Other Drugs: Basic Psychological Processes

Effects of acute alcohol consumption on processing of perceptual cues of emotional expression.
Attwood, A. S., Ohlson, C., Benton, C. P., Penton-Voak, I. S., Munafo, M. R.
Psychopharmacol, Jan 2009; vol. 23: pp. 23-30

Alcohol consumption has been associated with increases in aggressive behaviour. However, experimental evidence of a direct association is equivocal, and mechanisms that may underlie this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may increase aggressive behaviour is via alterations in processing of emotional facial cues. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion. Participants attended three experimental sessions where they consumed an alcoholic drink (0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg), and completed a psychophysical task to distinguish expressive from neutral faces. The level of emotion in the expressive face varied across trials the threshold at which the expressive face was reliably identified and measured. We observed a significant three-way interaction involving emotion, participant sex and alcohol dose. Male participants showed significantly higher perceptual thresholds for sad facial expressions compared with female participants following consumption of the highest dose of alcohol. Our data indicate sex differences in the processing of facial cues of emotional expression following alcohol consumption. There was no evidence that alcohol altered the processing of angry facial expressions. Future studies should examine effects of alcohol expectancy and investigate the effects of alcohol on the miscategorisation of emotional expressions.

Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on visuospatial attention.
do Canto-Pereira, Luiz Henrique M., David, Isabel de PA, Machado-Pinheiro, Walter, Ranvaud, Ronald D.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, Apr 2007; vol. 26: pp. 311-319

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the spatial distribution of visual attention measured with simple reaction times (RTs) to targets presented over an extended region of the visual field. Control (n =10) and alcohol groups (n =14) were tested with the same protocol. Participants were tested in two different conditions; in Experiment I, participants were instructed to direct their visual attention to the centre, while in Experiment II they were asked to orient their attention covertly to both right and left, but not to the centre. Throughout participants were required to fixate a small cross in the centre of the computer screen. In the alcohol group, participants received an alcohol dose of 0.4 g/kg so as to produce a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in the range of 0.08% during the experiments. The spatial distribution of RTs was analysed graphically with geostatistical methods and statistically through analysis of variance of particular regions of the visual field. Results showed that controls were able to direct their attention tightly towards the centre (Expt I) and also to divide attention (Expt II) to the right and left. Participants in the alcohol group fixed their attention more diffusely in the centre (Expt I) and were unable to disengage attention from the centre in Experiment II. We conclude that acute alcohol intoxication impairs the ability to dissociate attention from gaze.

Cannabis use, cognitive performance and mood in a sample of workers.
Wadsworth, E. J. K., Moss, S. C., Simpson, S. A., Smith, A. P.
J Psychopharmacol, Jan 2006; vol. 20: pp. 14-23

There are well documented acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on mental functioning. However, less is known about any effects on cognition within the context of work and everyday life. The aim of the study was to examine any association between cannabis use and cognitive performance, mood and human error at work. Cannabis users and controls completed a battery of laboratory based computer tasks measuring mood and cognitive function pre- and post-work at the start and end of a working week. They also completed daily diaries reporting their work performance. Cannabis use was associated with impairment in both cognitive function and mood, though cannabis users reported no more workplace errors than controls. Cannabis use was associated with lower alertness and slower response organization. In addition, users experienced working memory problems at the start, and psychomotor slowing and poorer episodic recall at the end of the working week. This pattern of results suggests two possible effects. First a hangover'-type effect which may increase with frequency of use. Second a subtle effect on cognitive function, perhaps more apparent under cognitive load and/or fatigue, which may increase with more prolonged use. The results also highlight the importance of the timing of testing within the context and routine of everyday life.

Chapter 8: Aggression

The Relationship Between the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed and the Severity of Sexual Assaults Committed by College Men.
Abbey, Antonia, Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique, McAuslan, Pam, Zawacki, Tina, Buck, Philip O.
J Interpers Violence, Jul 2003; vol. 18: pp. 813-833

Researchers have suggested that intoxicated perpetrators may act more violently than other perpetrators, although empirical findings have been mixed. Past research has focused on whether or not alcohol was consumed, rather than the quantity consumed, and this may explain these inconsistent findings. The authors hypothesized that the quantity of alcohol consumed would have a curvilinear relationship to the severity of the assault. Data were collected from 113 college men who reported that they had committed a sexual assault since the age of 14. The quantity of alcohol that perpetrators consumed during the assault was linearly related to how much aggression they used and was curvilinearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. The quantity of alcohol that victims consumed during the assault was linearly related to the type of sexual assault committed. Strategies for improving assessment of alcohol consumption in sexual assault research are discussed.

Intimate Partner Aggression Reporting Concordance and Correlates of Agreement Among Men With Alcohol use Disorders and Their Female Partners.
Jillian Panuzio, Timothy J. O’Farrell, Amy D. Marshall, Christopher M. Murphy, Marie Murphy, and Casey T. Taft
Assessment, Vol. 13, No. 3, 266-279 (2006)

This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men’s antisocial personality disorder characteristics were the strongest predictor of higher concordance for male- and female-perpetrated aggression. Higher alcohol problem severity, poorer relationship adjustment, and higher psychopathic personality features were associated with better concordance in some analyses. Women reported experiencing more physical aggression than men reported perpetrating, and women reported perpetrating more psychological aggression than men reported experiencing. Findings highlight the importance of obtaining aggression reports from both partners and the need for research investigating methods for improving concordance.

Harm, Intent, and the Nature of Aggressive Behavior: Measuring Naturally Occurring Aggression in Barroom Settings.
Graham, Kathryn, Tremblay, Paul F., Wells, Samantha, Pernanen, Kai, Purcell, John, and Jelley, Jennifer. 
Assessment, Sep 2006; vol. 13: pp. 280-296

The research goals were to use the constructs of harm and intent to quantify the severity of aggression in the real-world setting of the bar/club, to describe the range of aggressive behaviors and their relationship to harm and intent, and to examine gender differences in the form and severity of aggression. Systematic observations were conducted by trained observers on 1,334 nights in 118 bars/clubs. Observers documented a range of aggressive acts by 1,754 patrons in 1,052 incidents, with many forms of aggression occurring at more than one harm and intent level. Women used different forms of aggression, inflicted less harm, and were more likely to have defensive intent compared with men. Implications of the findings for research and measurement of aggression and applications to preventing aggression and violence are discussed.

Chapter 9: Family

The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns.
Ohannessian, Christine Mccauley, Hesselbrock, Victor M., Kramer, John, Kuperman, Samuel, Bucholz, Kathleen K., Schuckit, Marc A., and Nurnberger, John I.
Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Jan 2005; vol. 13: pp. 67-76

The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered the SemiStructured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism to obtain clinical psychiatric diagnoses. Paternal psychopathology (depression and alcohol dependence) significantly predicted adolescent alcohol dependence, whereas maternal psychopathology did not. Maternal alcohol dependence did not predict any of the adolescent psychiatric diagnoses. In contrast, both paternal depression and maternal depression significantly predicted adolescent conduct disorder and depression. In addition, maternal depression significantly predicted adolescent anxiety. No significant interactions between parental psychopathology and adolescent gender were observed. Nevertheless, results from this study underscore the importance of considering the gender of the parent when examining the relationship between parental psychopathology and psychopathology in the offspring.

Parental Monitoring, Peer Drug Involvement, and Marijuana Use Across Three Ethnicities.
Sarah L. Tragesser, Fred Beauvais, Randall C. Swaim, Ruth W. Edwards, and Eugene R. Oetting
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 6, 670-694 (2007)

The purposes of the present study were to test differences in parental monitoring and marijuana use rates and relationships among constructs across three ethnicities, and to use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Van de Vijver and Leung's Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique to test for cultural equivalence and item bias in the measurement of these constructs. Participants included 7,500 Mexican American, African American, and non-Hispanic White 10th-12th graders. African American participants showed higher levels of parental monitoring, lower levels of marijuana use, and a stronger relationship between parental monitoring and peer influence. SEM results indicated lack of cultural equivalence for each latent factor. ANOVA results indicated item bias for specific items. Putative cultural differences in the relations between parental monitoring and peer influence, as well as potential sources of bias in measuring family, peer, and drug involvement factors among participants from different cultural groups are discussed.

The Protective and Risk Effects of Parents and Peers on Substance Use, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Mexican and Mexican American Female and Male Adolescents.
Monica Parsai, Sarah Voisine, Flavio F. Marsiglia, Stephen Kulis, and Tanya Nieri.
Youth & Society, Vol. 40, No. 3, 353-376 (2009)

This study explores the extent to which parental and peer behaviors and norms may affect substance use, personal antidrug norms, and intentions to use drugs in a group of Mexican heritage preadolescents in the Southwest United States, and whether these parental and peer influences differ according to gender. Secondary data from a randomized trial of a drug prevention program were used. The sample consisted of 2,733 adolescents. The outcomes were recent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, personal antidrug norms, and intentions to use drugs. In this study, peer variables were more consistently related to the outcomes than parent variables, with the exception of parental injunctive norms, which were the most predictive parent factor. Recommendations are provided to further study the protective processes that are maintained through the transition into adolescence and acculturation as a foundation for the design of resiliency-focused prevention interventions.

Chapter 10: Age Differences

Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents.
Stevenson Fergus, Marc A. Zimmerman, and Cleopatra H. Caldwell
Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol. 20, No. 4, 423-452 (2005)

Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers, experimenters/consistent light smokers, consistent regular smokers, accelerators, and quitters. Psychological well-being at Year 1 was lower among consistent regular smokers and accelerators as compared to abstainers. Variance in other problem behaviors mirrored the smoker trajectories. At Year 4,the abstainers and experimenters/consistent light smokers reported greater participation in sports activities as compared to the quitters, whereas the abstainers reported greater participation in other school activities as compared to the consistent regular smokers.

Residence Hall Room Type and Alcohol Use Among College Students Living on Campus.
Cross, Jennifer E., Zimmerman, Don, O'Grady, Megan A.
Environment and Behavior, Jan 2009; vol. 0: 0013916508328169

The objectives were to explore the relation between the built environment of residence halls and the alcohol use of college students living on campus from the perspective of the theory of routine activity. This exploratory study examined data from two samples on one college campus. Online surveys assessed alcohol use, attitudes toward alcohol use, perceptions of campus alcohol norms, and individual factors (i.e., gender). Data came from an Alcohol Norms Survey using a random sample (N = 440) and a Resident Assessment Survey using a random sample (N = 531) in 2006 and 2007. After controlling for other drinking behavior predictors (attitudes, gender, high school drinking, and perceptions of peer drinking), regression analysis showed that students living in suite halls had a higher odds of drinking more frequently, drinking more alcohol when they socialize, heavy episodic drinking, and drinking more often in their residence halls.

Comorbid Substance Use and HIV Risk in Older African American Drug Users.
Johnson, Sharon D., Striley, Catherine, and Cottler, Linda B.
J Aging Health, Aug 2007; vol. 19: pp. 646-658

Objectives: This analysis examines substance abuse/dependence and related HIV risk behaviors among older drug users in comparison to their younger counterparts. Methods: Data related to substance use disorders and HIV related behaviors were collected from 1,079 African American drug users recruited using a street outreach method. Results: Older users were less likely to have engaged in recent sexual activity, but those who did engage did not vary significantly in their sexual risk behaviors than did drug users aged 25 to 44. Older users were more likely to abuse cocaine and be opiate dependent than younger users were, and this abuse and dependence, along with alcohol abuse, were associated with older users' perception of their risk for HIV/AIDS. Discussion: Although the years 25 to 44 are considered a critical age for HIV risk, older substance users have similar levels of risk for HIV/AIDS. However, older users may not understand how some behaviors contribute to HIV risk.

Alcohol, Aging, and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.
Gail E. Bond, Robert Burr, Madeline Murguia Rice, Susan M. McCurry, Amy Borenstein Graves, Linda Teri. et al.
Journal of Aging and Health, Vol. 15, No. 2, 371-390 (2003)

Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in two culturally diverse community-based populations. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was used including Japanese Americans (n = 1,836) and Caucasians (n = 2,581) aged 65 and older. Cognitive performance was measured using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (0 to 100 point scale) and reaction time. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed significant cultural and gender differences with cognitive performance. Compared to abstainers, Caucasian drinkers scored higher than Japanese American drinkers on the CASI (adjusted means = 93.4 versus 91.6). In contrast, Japanese American drinkers scored faster than Caucasian drinkers on choice reaction time (adjusted means = 505 versus 579 milli-seconds). Discussion: Results showed that current drinking was associated with better cognition in both the Caucasian and Japanese American groups. Longitudinal studies are needed to support the possible protective effects of alcohol on cognition and explore whether culture may modify this apparent benefit.

Chapter 11: Gender

Women and Alcohol-Use Disorders: A Review of Important Knowledge and Its Implications for Social Work Practitioners.
Brad R. Karoll
Journal of Social Work, Vol. 2, No. 3, 337-356 (2002)

Gender differences in daily smoking prevalence in different age strata: A population-based study in southern Sweden.
Ali, Sadiq M., Chaix, Basile , Merlo, Juan, Rosvall, Maria, Wamala, Sarah and Lindström, Martin. 
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, (2009)Vol. 37, No. 2, 146-152

Objectives: To investigate gender differences in daily smoking prevalence in different age groups in southern Sweden. Methods: The 2004 public-health survey in Skane is a cross-sectional study. A total of 27,757 persons aged 18—80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between gender and daily smoking according to age. The multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders (country of origin, education, snus use, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, and BMI) on the gender differences in daily smoking in different age groups. Results: 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were daily smokers to a significantly higher extent than young and old respondents. The prevalence of daily smoking also varied according to other demographic, socioeconomic, health related behaviour, and BMI characteristics. The crude odds ratios of daily smoking were 1.79 (1.42—2.26) among women compared to men in the 18—24 years age group, and 0.95 (0.80—1.12) in the 65—80 years age group. These odds ratios changed to 2.00 (1.49—2.67) and 0.95 (0.76—1.18), respectively, when all confounders were included. Conclusions: For the first time in Sweden women have a higher prevalence of daily smoking than men. The odds ratios of daily smoking are highest among women compared to men in the youngest age group of 18—24 years and the odds ratios decrease with increasing age. The findings point to a serious public health problem. Strategic interventions targeting young women's tobacco smoking are needed.

‘Hardcore Drinking:’ Portrayals of Alcohol Consumption in Young Women’s and Men’s Magazines.
Antonia C. Lyons, Sue I. Dalton, and Anna Hoy
Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 2, 223-232 (2006)

Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women’s and men’s drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images—and derided in men’s magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults.

Chapter 12: Minorities

Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population.
La Grange, Linda, Hojnowski, Natalya, Nesterova, Svitlana 
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Nov 2007; vol. 29: pp. 570-580

The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related aggression. Among male participants, impulsivity did not correlate with either alcohol consumption or frequency of fighting, whereas with females there was a strong positive correlation between impulsivity and alcohol consumption and a weak positive correlation between impulsivity and frequency of fighting. When the results were compared to those of Quigley et al., it was found that the Hispanic participants drank and fought less. The best predictor variable for male alcohol consumption was the desire to be viewed as "tough." "Activity" was the primary predictor for female alcohol consumption.

The Influence of Parental Warmth and Control on Latino Adolescent Alcohol Use.
Cristina Mogro-Wilson
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Feb 2008; vol. 30: pp. 89-105

Latino adolescent alcohol use is related to substance use, later life addiction, and other negative outcomes. The lack of knowledge on parenting and the parent-youth relationship in Latino families in the context of acculturation and its affects on alcohol use prompted this study. Secondary data analysis using the Add Health data set indicates that high amounts of parental control function positively for Latino families, contrary to some findings for non-Latinos. In addition, parental warmth significantly reduced alcohol use and also positively affected the parent-youth relationship which decreased alcohol use. When families spoke English at home, parental control decreased which lead to an increase in alcohol use. A critical examination of the implications for the cultural understanding of parental influences on adolescent alcohol use is discussed. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Latino families that should be considered when developing intervention options.

Factors Contributing to Differences in Substance Use Among Black and White Adolescents.
Toni Terling Watt and Jesse McCoy Rogers
Youth & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1, 54-74 (2007)

Research reveals that Black youth are less likely to use alcohol than White youth. It has been argued that Blacks are more likely to abstain because they have less disposable income, are more religious, and have more family support and/or control than White youth. It has also been suggested that not only are these compositional characteristics different and likely to suppress use rates but also that the effects of these factors vary as well. However, there are no comprehensive empirical investigations of these explanations. This study uses the Add Health Survey to examine alcohol and drug use by race and/or ethnicity and to explore how differences in composition and process might produce differences in use. Results suggest that the socioeconomic contexts of Black and White youth differ considerably. However, differences in alcohol use are almost entirely explained by differences in process, in particular, the influence of peers and the family.

Race, Religion, and Abstinence from Alcohol in Late Life.
Neal Krause
Journal of Aging and Health, (2003) VOL. 15, No. 3, 508-533

Objective: This study aimed to see whether involvement in religion helps explain why older Blacks are more likely to avoid drinking alcohol than older Whites. Methods: Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older Whites and older Blacks. Survey items were administered to assess whether study participants consume alcohol, whether they affiliate with fundamentalist congregations, how often they attend religious services, how often they pray privately, and whether they derive a sense of meaning from their faith. Results: The findings reveal that older people who affiliate with fundamentalist churches and who find meaning in religion are more likely to avoid drinking. However, neither church attendance nor private prayer are related to alcohol use. Race differences in the odds of drinking were no longer statistically significant once the religion measures were added to the model. Discussion: The findings highlight the importance of religion in shaping the health behaviors of older adults.

Chapter 13: AA and Natural Recovery

‘One Day at a Time' and other Slogans for Everyday Life: The Ethical Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous.
Valverde, Mariana, and White-Mair, Kimberley
 Sociology, May 1999; vol. 33: pp. 393-410

Alcoholics Anonymous has developed an oral tradition for teaching people to alter their relation to their own desires and their own freedom fundamentally, teaching that is done through practice rather than through ideas. Our study of AA's innovative organisational tools for building long-lasting mutual-help groups shows that the same tools that build the organisation also exemplify and embody the organisation's ethical worldview. To that extent, AA's group practices are worth studying not only from the point of view of learning about bottom-up, non-expert-led networks but also to shed light on the development of a popular pragmatist ethics in which little techniques - anonymity, the focus on the 24-hour cycle, etc. - deconstruct the Kantian distinction between means and ends. This study of the everyday ethics of AA members argues that AA's unique role in the history of popular ethical practices can be traced to several original features. First, AA incorporates elements of the disease model of alcoholism while remaining fundamentally a spiritual programme, thus mapping an important hybrid terrain often ignored by students of medicalisation. Secondly, AA was able to steer away from the political controversies about temperance, prohibition, and control of alcoholic beverages that had made the old temperance movement founder. Thirdly and most importantly, AA uniquely managed to combine the once-in-a-lifetime experience of total transformation that is characteristic of religious conversion with the development of a series of slogans and mental techniques for dealing with the `trivial' details of life. This paper first outlines the hybrid terrain of AA, between medicine and religion, and then examines a few of the techniques that are at the core of AA's success, including anonymity, the Higher Power, and the twenty-four hour cycle.

Power, Spirituality, and Time From a Feminist Perspective: Correlates of Sobriety in a Study of Sober Female Participants in Alcoholics Anonymous.
Rush, Mary McGrath
Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Dec 2000; vol. 6: pp. 196-202

BACKGROUND: The social support network and spiritual orientation of Alcoholics Anonymous were significant predictors of the choice of this study's sample of 125 sober alcoholic women to actively participate in Alcoholics Anonymous for at least 1 year. Religious affiliation is another choice that a woman may make in seeking to know herself in sobriety. OBJECTIVE: The first objective of these ancillary analyses was to determine whether either length of sobriety or number of weekly meetings attended was correlated to power as knowing participation in change, perceived social support, and spirituality. The second objective was to determine whether there was a difference in spirituality between women who actively participated in their religion and those who did not. DESIGN: This correlational study was designed to explore relations among power as knowing participation in change, social support, spirituality, length of sobriety, and number of weekly meetings attended. These research questions were answered by using hierarchical multiple regressions and a t test. RESULTS: The number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended weekly contributed significantly to power and to spirituality. Length of sobriety was not correlated with any of the three major variables. Spirituality scores were also significantly higher for those who were actively involved in their religion than for those who were not. CONCLUSIONS: The significant difference among the findings in the conceptualization of time emphasizes the need for a continuing connection with a group of peers. Also, the role of organized religion in spiritual orientation was demonstrated.

Chapter 14: Treatment and Evaluation

Treating Comorbid Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders: Combining Motivation Enhancement Therapy With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
Julia D. Buckner, Deborah Roth Ledley, Richard G. Heimberg, and Norman B. Schmidt
Clinical Case Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, 208-223 (2008).

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) co-occur at particularly high rates, resulting in greater impairment than either disorder alone. Thus, the development of effective treatments for patients with SAD and comorbid AUD is an important clinical and research aim. Yet little work has examined treatments for SAD with comorbid AUD. Given the efficacy of motivation enhancement therapy (MET) for AUD and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD, combining MET with CBT may decrease symptoms of both AUD and SAD. The present case study outlines the successful use of combined MET-CBT to treat a 33-year-old man with a long history of generalized SAD with AUD. Following 19 sessions of MET-CBT, the patient was considered in remission for both disorders, with notable decreases in social anxiety and alcohol-related problems (with continued gains at 6-month follow-up). Although these data are preliminary, they indicate that the combination of MET and CBT may be a viable approach to the treatment for patients with SAD and comorbid AUD.

Acamprosate supports abstinence, Naltrexone prevents excessive drinking: evidence from a meta-analysis with unreported outcomes.
Rosner, Susanne, Leucht, Stefan, Lehert, Philippe, and Soyka, Michael J.
Psychopharmacol, Jan 2008; vol. 22: pp. 11-23

Two pharmacological agents have repeatedly been shown to be efficacious for relapse prevention in alcohol dependence: The putative glutamate-antagonist acamprosate and the opioid-antagonist naltrexone. Clinical evidence for both drugs is based on various outcome criteria. Whereas for acamprosate primarily abstinence maintenance has been demonstrated, studies with naltrexone have mostly emphasised the prevention of heavy drinking. The remaining effects of both drugs are not always reported; accordingly the corresponding database is fragmentary. Thus, the primary objective of the present meta-analysis was to complete the efficacy profiles for acamprosate and naltrexone and to compare them with each other. Unreported results, requested from the study investigators and the drug manufacturers, were integrated in the computation of effect sizes. For the meta-analysis, emphasis was placed on the conceptual distinction between having a first drink and returning to heavy drinking . Naltrexone was found to have a significant effect on the maintenance of abstinence as well as the prevention of heavy drinking. Acamprosate was shown only to support abstinence; it did not influence alcohol consumption after the first drink. When the efficacy profiles of the two drugs were compared, acamprosate was found to be more effective in preventing a lapse, whereas naltrexone was better in preventing a lapse from becoming a relapse. The superiority of either one drug or over the other one cannot be determined as a general rule, it rather depends on the therapeutic target. Benefits in the treatment of alcohol dependence might be optimized by matching the efficacy profiles of specific antidipsotropics with the motivational status of alcohol-dependent patients.

Chapter 15: Relapse After Treatment of Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders

Has Relapse Prevention Received a Fair Shake? A Review and Implications for Future Transfer Research.
Hutchins, Holly M., and Burke, Lisa A.
Human Resource Development Review, Mar 2006; vol. 5: pp. 8-24

As learning and performance improvement continues to dominate the training research landscape, so does the need to justify the results of relevant interventions. One area in training research that has continued to elude practitioners and researchers is enhancing the use of trained skills back on the job (i.e., training transfer). Relapse prevention (RP) is a posttraining transfer intervention that has been studied for decades but associated findings lack consistency in transfer research. In this article, the authors review studies using RP as a transfer intervention, examine the weaknesses of study design and methods, and suggest improvements for future research to seek a fair test of its ultimate effectiveness.

Treated and Untreated Alcohol-Use Disorders: Course and Predictors of Remission and Relapse.
Moos, Rudolf H., Moos, Bernice S. 
Eval Rev, Dec 2007; vol. 31: pp. 564-584

The research described here focused on personal, life context, and help-related factors to trace the long-term course of treated and untreated alcohol-use disorders. A group of 461 individuals who sought help for alcohol problems was surveyed at baseline and 1, 3, 8, and 16 years later. Compared with individuals who remained untreated, individuals who entered treatment and/or Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and participated in these modalities for a longer interval, were more likely to attain remission. Personal resources associated with social learning, stress and coping, behavior economic, and social control theories predicted the maintenance of remission.

Chapter 16: Prevention

A Theory-Based Motivational Approach for Reducing Alcohol/Drug Problems in College.
Miller, William R., Toscova, Radka T., Miller, Joseph H., Sanchez, Victoria
Health Educ Behav, Dec 2000; vol. 27: pp. 744-759

The Campuswide Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program (CADAPP) was implemented and evaluated over a 1.5-year span at the University of New Mexico (UNM). Drawing on self-regulation theory as a basis for understanding motivation for change, the program was designed to increase risk perceptions and thereby reduce the use of alcohol and other drugs among university students. The program was evaluated from 1988 to 1989 through repeated anonymous random sample surveys of all enrolled students on the UNM campus and on a similar control campus not implementing new prevention efforts during the same period. As predicted, relative to the control campus, students on the CADAPP campus after the program showed significantly higher perceived risks from substance use and significantly reduced levels of alcohol and marijuana use. These findings provide encouraging evidence for this theory-based approach to primary and secondary prevention.

Under the Influence: Taking Alcohol Issues Into the College Classroom.
Riley, Joan Burggraf, Durbin, Patrick T., and D'Ariano, Mary 
Health Promot Pract, Apr 2005; vol. 6: pp. 202-206

Alcohol use and abuse among college students pose an enormous and unique public health problem that is associated with significant harm to students. Colleges nationwide are seeking to address student alcohol use through a variety of programs and policies. An effort at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., combines a campus-wide dialogue on the subject with the infusion of alcohol issues into the curriculum of an undergraduate course in the School of Nursing and Health Studies. Course evaluations indicate that participants benefited from the curriculum infusion approach. Participants became aware of the health education resources available to students and the campus culture contributing to alcohol. In addition, student participants evaluated their own alcohol use, with significant modifications of alcohol consumption behaviors.

Smoking and Harm-Reduction Efforts Among Postpartum Women.
Mimi Nichter, Mark Nichter, Shelly Adrian, Kate Goldade, Laura Tesler, and Myra Muramoto
Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 18, No. 9, 1184-1194 (2008)

The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women ( N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women's harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative.

Project Northland High School Interventions: Community Action to Reduce Adolescent Alcohol Use.
Cheryl L. Perry, Carolyn L. Williams, Kelli A. Komro, Sara Veblen-Mortenson, Jean L. Forster, Randi Bernstein-Lachter, et al.
Health Education & Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 1, 29-49 (2000)

Project Northland is a randomized community trial initially implemented in 24 school districts and communities in northeastern Minnesota, with goals of delaying onset and reducing adolescent alcohol use using community-wide, multiyear, multiple interventions. The study targets the Class of 1998 from the 6th to 12th grades (1991-1998). The early adolescent phase of Project Northland has been completed, and reductions in the prevalence of alcohol use at the end of 8th grade were achieved. Phase II of Project Northland, targeting 11th- and 12th-grade students, uses five major strategies: (1) direct action community organizing methods to encourage citizens to reduce underage access to alcohol, (2) youth development involving high school students in youth action teams, (3) print media to support community organizing and youth action initiatives and communicate healthy norms about underage drinking (e.g., providing alcohol to minors is unacceptable), (4) parent education and involvement, and (5) a classroom-based curriculum for 11th-grade students. This article describes the background, design, implementation, and process measures of the intervention strategies for Phase II of Project Northland.