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Online Journal Articles and Discussion


The purpose of this online resource is to stimulate critical discussion about the topics and issues surrounding race, ethnicity, gender, and class. This resource is organized into thematic parts which correspond to the textbook's chapters. Some articles offer provocative arguments, some articles discuss the theoretical implications of certain ideas, other articles discuss the meaning of information and data, and others report policy implications. All of the articles have been selected from reputable scholarly journals. If you are interested in further research, please explore Sage Publications' journal homepages and collections from the links given below.

Chapter 1: Diversity in the United States: Questions and Concepts
Chapter 2: Assimilation and Pluralism: From Immigrants to White Ethnics
Chapter 3: Prejudice and Discrimination
Chapter 4: The Development of Dominant-Minority Group Relations in Pre-Industrial America: The Origins of Slavery
Chapter 5: Industrialization and Dominant-Minority Relations: From Slavery to Segregation and the Coming of Postindustrial Society
Chapter 6: African Americans: From Segregation to Modern Institutional Discrimination and Modern Racism
Chapter 7: American Indians: From Conquest to Tribal Survival in a Postindustrial Society
Chapter 8: Hispanic Americans: Colonization, Immigration, and Ethnic Enclaves
Chapter 9: Asian Americans: "Model Minorities"?
Chapter 10: New Americans, Assimilation, and Old Challenges
Chapter 11: Minority Groups and U.S. Society: Themes, Patterns, and the Future

Chapter 1: Diversity in the United States: Questions and Concepts

Unlocking the Benefits of Diversity: All-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Positive Organizational Change
Flannery G. Stevens, Victoria C. Plaut, and Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2008) 44, p. 116 (14 pages)

This article explores the various ways that organizations are coping with recent demographic changes in the U.S. – specifically, the strategies of colorblindness and multiculturalism. As you read this article, consider the author's discussion of each of the organizational models discussed (e.g., colorblindness, multiculturalism, the AIM model, etc.). What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of each of these initiatives? Do you agree with the author's conclusion on which approach or approaches is/are most effective? Why or why not?

The Dynamics of Vertical and Horizontal Diversity in Organization and Society
Susan M. Awbrey
Human Resource Development Review (2007) 6, p. 7 (20 pages)

This article discusses the concepts of "vertical diversity" (difference = superior vs. inferior) and "horizontal diversity" (difference = variation) in society. The author claims that research doesn't support the idea that diversity encourages learning and creativity in organizations. What research does she cite, and why does she come to this conclusion? What does she suggest instead for enhancing the dynamics of diversity?

Religious Diversity and Democratic Institutional Pluralism
Veit Bader
Political Theory (2003) 31 , p. 265 (25 pages)

In this article, the author discusses the popular political theory of "separation of church and state," along with the theory of "associative democracy." What is the theory of "associative democracy," and what are some of its benefits to politics and people? Does the author mention some possible drawbacks? Also, consider the author's location (i.e. the University of Amsterdam) and the possible impact this may have on interpretations made regarding other countries and their socio-political situations (i.e. the U.S., Great Britain, etc.). Do you think an "outsider" would be better or worse at interpreting another country's political and social issues? Why or why not?


Chapter 2: Assimilation and Pluralism: From Immigrants to White Ethnics

New Immigrants in Minnesota: The Somali Immigration and Assimilation
Kebba Darboe
Journal of Developing Societies(2003) 19, p. 458 (12 pages)

In this article, the author looks at some of the unique challenges faced by recent Somali immigrants to the United States. As you read this article, think about how each of the different models of the assimilation discussed in textbook would account for these challenges.

American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the ‘‘Promised Land''
Gary Gerstle
Social Compass (2000) 47, p. 63 (11 pages)

Gary Gerstle's article explores the history of immigration to America, the myth that "America is a land of opportunity for all," and the hardships and discrimination faced by immigrants in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. As you read this article, pay attention to the issues of "sojourners." Also, how does Gerstle believe the myth of "America – The Promised Land" relates to the expulsion of Native Americans?

The Role of Religion in the Process of Segmented Assimilation
R. Stephen Warner
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and SocialScience (2007) 612, p. 100 (12 pages)

This article discusses the theory of Segmented Assimilation, and proposes ways that religion can be incorporated into this theory. What are some examples of the "diverse paths" that assimilation can take in today's immigrants? Why does the author believe religion should be incorporated into this process, and what are some of the benefits and drawbacks of doing so? Does this article advocate assimilation, pluralism, or some combination of these themes?


Chapter 3: Prejudice and Discrimination

'I Know, 'cos I Was There': How Residence Abroad Students Use Personal Experience to Legitimate Cultural Generalizations.
Karen Tusting, Robert Crawshaw, & Beth Callen
Discourse & Society (2002) 13, p. 651 (18 pages)

Karen Tusting and colleagues document a process through which individuals, even those who should know better, resort to stereotyping and generalizations based on limited knowledge. The textbook mentions several other studies that point out people's willingness to stereotype other people. Why do you think this is so? What are some explanations for why people do this?

Contemporary Sexism and Discrimination: The Importance of Respect for Men and Women
Lynne Jackson, Victoria Esses, & Christopher Burris
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (2001) 27, p. 48 (12 pages)

In this article, the authors explore the issue of "contemporary sexism," which is also called "modern sexism" in the textbook. The article presents three studies on hiring preferences for men over women. Were all three of the studies conducted in similar ways, and were there similarities and/or differences in their findings? What suggestions do the authors make in order to reduce the kinds of stereotypes present in contemporary sexism?

African American College Students' Experiences with Everyday Racism: Characteristics of and Responses to These Incidents
Janet K. Swim, Lauri Hyers, Laurie Cohen, Davita Fitzgerald, & Wayne H. Bylsma
Journal of Black Psychology (2003) 29, p. 38 (26 pages)

Janet Swim and her coauthors provide accounts of encounters with "everyday racism" by African American college students. Their description of these experiences and the details of students' responses to them are eye opening. What are some examples of the interactions between race, gender, and class that are evident in the experiences presented?


Chapter 4: The Development of Dominant-Minority Group Relations in Pre-Industrial America: The Origins of Slavery

Slavery, Emancipation, and Class Formation in Colonial and Early National New York City
Leslie Harris
Journal of Urban History (2004) 30, p. 339 (16 pages)

In this article, Leslie Harris gives us insight into conditions of slavery and its aftermath in an area we don't typically associate with slavery – New York City. She presents the connections between the slave system and its dissolution and how classes were formed in the 18th and 19th centuries. What were some of the reasons given for and against abolishing slavery in New York? What eventually led to the eradication of the institution of slavery? What are some examples of the political and economic inequalities faced by blacks even after slavery ended?

200 Years of Forgetting: Hushing up the Haitian Revolution
Thomas Reinhardt
Journal of Black Studies (2005) 35, p. 246 (8 pages)

Thomas Reinhardt discusses the slave-led revolution in Haiti, and explores why this significant historical event is often left out of Western History. What are some of the reasons cited for the absence of the Haitian slave revolt in history accounts? Does the author provide an explanation of what led to a massive slave revolt in Haiti but not in the U.S.? What do you see as some similarities and differences between the situation in Haiti and the U.S. in the past and today?

Long Ago and Far Away: How US Newspapers Construct Racial Oppression
Hemant Shah & Seungahn Nah
Journalism (2004) 5, p. 259 (17 pages)

In this article, the authors look at U. S. newspapers' coverage of racial oppression. They see that often it is presented as "long ago and far away," rather than something real, current, and active in U. S. society. What are some limitations of this study, particularly, the way newspaper articles were found and classified for the study? If racial oppression is presented as something that occurred in the past, what impact might that have on people's awareness of prejudice and inequality in today's society?


Chapter 5: Industrialization and Dominant-Minority Relations : From Slavery to Segregation and the Coming of Postindustrial Society

Economic Imperatives and Race Relations: The Rise and Fall of the American Apartheid System
Sherry Cable & Tamara Mix
Journal of Black Studies (2003) 34, p. 183 (18 pages)

In this article, the authors discuss the legal and systematic separation that characterized U. S. society, looking at both the reasons for its formation and the events that helped to bring about its decline. What evidence is present to support the author's claim that U.S. institutions – such as education, politics, economics, and neighborhoods – continue to produce racial differences?

Shifting Geographies: Examining the Role of Suburbanization in Blacks' Declining Segregation
Mary Fischer
Urban Affairs Review (2008) 43, p. 475 (17 pages)

This article examines recent trends in blacks' moves to the suburbs, and their continued urban segregation. Although this article features some extensive statistical analysis, it does explore a very interesting phenomenon in the current racial segregation of living spaces. What are some explanations for the uneven distribution of black in urban areas, and what are some causes for their increasing move to the suburbs? Also, why are there different rates of urban/suburban segregation in different geographic regions of the country?

Statistical Discrimination in Employment: Its Practice, Conceptualization, and Implications for Public Policy
Amanda Baumle & Mark Fossett
American Behavioral Scientist (2005) 48, p. 1250 (20 pages)

In this article, the authors explore how the phenomenon of statistical discrimination may begin to replace more traditional forms of "prejudice-based discrimination." What is statistical discrimination, and how is it different from other forms of discrimination? What suggestions do the authors make for combating racial discrimination in employment?


Chapter 6: African Americans: From Segregation to Modern Institutional Discrimination and Modern Racism

Fannie Lou Hamer: The Unquenchable Spirit of the Civil Rights Movement
Janice Hamlet
Journal of Black Studies (1996) 26, p. 560 (15 pages)

This article is a brief biography of the life and work of Fannie Lou Hamer – one of the most influential women in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. As you read this article, think about a few of these questions: How did Hamer become involved in the movement? What inspired her to keep working for equal rights, despite all of the challenges she faced? Were there any similarities or differences between Hamer and King? Why was Hamer's involvement and commitment to civil rights largely unrecognized until her death in 1977? How does Hamer's work continue to impact the current situation for African American women around the country?

Race and the "I Have a Dream" Legacy: Exploring Predictors of Positive Civil Rights Attitudes
Antwan Jones
Journal of Black Studies (2006) 37, p. 193 (12 pages)

In this study, the author looks at the relationship between racial attitudes towards blacks and attitudes towards civil rights. What are some of the other factors that are also related to one's attitude toward civil rights and acceptance of blacks? What are some explanations for negative attitudes toward civil rights and blacks? Also, considering where people in the sample were from, how many people were studied, and how old they were, what are some possible limitations to this study?

Gender, Race, and Urban Policing: The Experience of African American Youths
Rod Brunson & Jody Miller
Gender and Society (2006) 20, p. 531 (19 pages)

In this study, the authors examine the relationship between young African Americans' gender and race on interactions with the police. How do young men and women's attitudes toward the police differ? What are some examples of "aggressive policing," and what affect does it have on adolescents? What do the authors suggest to help mediate the interaction of gender and race on attitudes toward the police?


Chapter 7: American Indians : From Conquest to Tribal Survival in a Postindustrial Society

"You Know, We Are All Indian": Exploring White Power and Privilege in Reactions to the NCAA Native American Mascot Policy
Ellen J. Staurowsky
Journal of Sport and Social Issues (2007) 31, p. 61 (13 pages)

This article explores the controversy that started in 2005 when the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) announced that it would no longer allow schools with Native American mascots to display those images during NCAA events, and those schools would also be barred from hosting NCAA championships. What does the author claim this case tells us about White power, racism, and using Native American symbols as mascots? Also, what do exceptions to the NCAA's rule tell us about "the continuum of sustainable racism"?

Treaty Rights and the Right to Culture: Native American Subsistence Issues in US Law
Jennifer Sepez
Cultural Dynamics (2002) 14, p. 143 (15 pages)

In this article, the author explores the legal and ethical rights to traditional hunting or gathering practices, also known as "subsistence issues", of Native American groups. What are some of the cultural controversies that arise in issues such as fishing and whaling? Does the author believe that laws passed by the U.S. government are more or less important than Native American cultural traditions? Does she propose a way to accommodate them both?

American Indian Ways of Leading and Knowing
Linda Sue Warner & Keith Grint
Leadership (2006) 2, p. 225 (15 pages)

This study looks at the differences between American Indian and Western styles of leadership, and doesn't see one as being "better" than the other, but simply "different." How do these leadership and communication styles differ, especially when it comes to writing versus speaking? The textbook mentions that there are hundreds of different American Indian tribes, each with their own unique languages and cultures. As you read this article, consider where the study's sample was taken from. Where are the American Indians in the study from, and where are the Westerners from? Could there be differences in leadership styles among different tribes? Also, did the study find any gender differences in leadership and communication?


Chapter 8: Hispanic Americans : Colonization, Immigration, and Ethnic Enclaves

Senator Barack Obama and Immigration Reform
Margaret Dorsey & Miguel Díaz-Barriga
Journal of Black Studies (2007) 38, p. 90 (12 pages)

This article explores Senator Barack Obama's views on immigration reform, and details his history of support for bipartisan legislation to overhaul current laws and restrictions. What does the proposed legislation of "comprehensive immigration reform" suggest changing about the U.S.'s immigration laws, and why? What is the opinion of Senator Obama and others on these proposals? What are some of the benefits and drawbacks cited by the authors of this new legislation?

Wearing Union T-Shirts: Undocumented Women Farm Workers and Gendered Circuits of Political Power
Hinda Seif
Latin American Perspectives (2008) 158, p. 78 (17 pages)

In this article, the author explores the connections between gender, immigrant status, and political activism. What does she find about the ways in which undocumented female immigrants are able to exercise political power? How does this differ from the ways in which undocumented male immigrants exercise power? What factors limit these women's participation in political activism? Is there anything that can be done to give them more power?

Latino vs. Hispanic: The Politics of Ethnic Names
Linda Martín Alcoff
Philosophy and Social Criticism (2005) 31 , p. 395 (10 pages)

In this article, the author contemplates the question of ethnic names. What are the power issues and meanings associated with the name a group is called? Does Alcoff's article agree or disagree with the textbook on ethnic terminology? What evidence does she cite to support her argument? Also, what does she say about the "colonial relations" still present in the Americas today?


Chapter 9: Asian Americans : "Model Minorities"

Factors Influencing Attitudes towards Seeking Professional Help among East and Southeast Asian Immigrant and Refugee Women
Kenneth Fung & Yuk-Lin Renita Wong
International Journal of Social Psychiatry (2007) 53 , p. 216 (13 pages)

This article explores the attitudes of Asian American immigrants and refugees towards mental health care. The authors studied women from five ethnic minority communities because they have lower rates of mental health service utilization. What are some of the cultural and economic reasons behind these lower rates? What can be done to increase mental health care with these populations?

Gender and Labor in Asian Immigrant Families
Yen Le Espiritu
American Behavioral Scientist (1999) 42, p. 628 (15 pages)

This article explores the affects of employment patterns on gender relations among contemporary Asian immigrants. What affect has the "preference" for female employees in certain occupations, combined with Asian American men's status as men-of-color, had on the reconfiguration of some gender relations? What factors have led to women being able to transform patriarchal family relations, and what factors have hindered it?

A Japanese-American Basketball League and the Assimilation of its Members into the Mainstream of United States Society
Haruo Nogawa & Sandraj Suttie
International Review for the Sociology of Sport (1984) 19, p. 259 (9 pages)

This study examined the effects of participation in a Japanese-American youth basketball league on assimilation into the dominant American culture. Although participation in the league didn't seem to promote assimilation, it did appear to reflect an aspect of ethnic solidarity for Japanese-Americans. Because this study was done in 1984, based on the information in the textbook, do you think the results would be different if the study were conducted again today? What aspects of Japanese Americans' immigration make their assimilation process different from that of other Asian Americans?


Chapter 10: New Americans, Assimilation, and Old Challenges

Gendered Ethnicity: Creating a Hindu Indian Identity in the United States
Prema Kurien
American Behavioral Scientist (1999) 42, p. 648 (19 pages)

In this article, the author explores how one immigrant group has attempted to establish an identity outside the existing structure of the dominant culture. The author looks at the role of gender in the creation of ethnic communities and cultures among Hindu Indian immigrants. What contradictions occur during the formation of a new cultural identity? What role does gender – both women's and men's – play in these processes? How would the results of this study be similar and different in other immigrant groups?

Mother Tongue Maintenance among North American Ethnic Groups
Robert Schrauf z
Cross-Cultural Research (1999) 33, p. 175 (13 pages)

This study looks at the conditions under which some ethnic groups maintain their "mother tongues," while others completely lose their native languages. What are some of the factors behind both the loss and persistence of native languages? Does losing or maintaining one's native language have any impact on one's degree of acculturation or assimilation? What does the author suggest researching in the future in order to better understand this issue? Can you think of other ways of researching this topic that might be informative?

Place, Age, and Culture: Community Living and Ethnic Identity among Lebanese American Adolescents
Kristine J. Ajrouch
Small Group Research (2000) 31, p. 447 (20 pages)

This study examines the impacts of place, age, and culture on the development of ethnic identity. The author interviewed adolescents from an ethnic community in the United States to learn more about the second-generations acculturation and social relationships. In this study, how does the author define "ethnic identity"? Do the adolescents in this study live in an "ethnic enclave," or is their "ethnic community" something different? If so, what are the differences? What were some of the benefits and drawbacks to living in this community?


Chapter 11: Minority Groups and U.S. Society : Themes, Patterns, and the Future

Revisiting the Black Struggle: Lesson for the 21st Century
Asafa Jalata
Journal of Black Studies (2002) 33, p. 86 (26 pages)

This article examines the successes and failures of African Americans in achieving equality in the United States. Specifically, it looks at why the Black movement was able to legally eliminate direct institutional racism, but why it was unable to eliminate indirect institutional racism. What are some examples of "direct" and "indirect" institutional racism? What does the author suggest to help aid in the struggle for economic development, self-determination, and multicultural democracy?

Epilogue: Latinos at the Portal of the 21 st Century
A. Reynaldo Contreras
Education and Urban Society (2004) 36, p. 223 (9 pages)

In this article, the author looks at Latinos in the United States and argues that the Black-White dichotomy cannot hold when Latinos have become the largest minority group in the country. He specifically addresses the ways in which the educational institution needs to accommodate to these new realities. What does he suggest to reduce the problem of continued segregation? Why is this focus on education so important for future generations (especially in minority groups), as was discussed in the textbook?

Law and Politics in Post-Modern California: Coalition or Conflict between African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latina/os?
Kevin Johnson
Ethnicities (2004) 4, p. 381 (14 pages)

In this article, the author explores the relations between several minority groups in the political process, and evaluates the prospects for social change. The study looks at minority groups in California, because that state is often seen as being a "microcosm" of American life, and perhaps reflects the racial diversity that will be the norm for American in the future. Why and how does the author suggest we "redefine" the traditional "civil rights discourse" to reflect changes in the socio-economic landscape? Does the author support a "grassroots" approach to this change, or something else? Would his suggestions be applicable to other parts of the United States right now? Does the author's discussion leave room for later immigrants and possibly new minority groups in the future of American society?